Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Psychology Research Guide: Reference Sources

Reference Sources

Reference Tools - Examples of  Psychology Related Sources (Print and Online) 

Psychology: Relevant Databases

Online Reference - University at Albany

Biological Sciences Internet Resources  - A list of selected web sites maintained by Sue Kaczor at the University at Albany

Psychology Internet Resources - A list of selected web sites which include psychology related organizations maintained by Deborah LaFond at the University at Albany.




APA Style - American Psychological Association Publication Manual 6th and 7th editions are located at the Reference Desks - [REF LB 2369 A62X] ULIB, DEWEY, SCIENCE Library   Please use Citation Fox to begin citing your sources. 

See also, APA Style Guide to Electronic References.  6th edition.
(Washington: American Psychological Association, 2012).
APA Style Simplified: Writing in Psychology, Education, Nursing, and Sociology. Bernard C. Beins. 2012.  [BF 76.7 B447 2012]

An Illustrated History of American Psychology.    John A. Popplestone and Marion White McPherson. 2nd ed. (Akron, OH: The University of Akron   Press, 1999). [REF BF 108 U5 P67X 1999]   This reference contains images pertaining to the history of American psychology from approximately 1875 to 1975.  Included are images of correspondence, lab equipment, and people.    

Annual Review of Psychology 1950+. Print version 1950-2005. [BF 30 A56] A very useful place to find out about current topics in psychology. It may be useful to consult the entire social science series. Annual publication.

Contemporary Psychology. (Washington: American Psychological   Association, 1956-2004.). [Per BF 1 C53]   This source provides reviews of books and other sources pertaining to psychology.   The electronic PsycCRITIQUES database (not owned by the Libraries) with weekly releases replaced the bimonthly print journal Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books in 2005.

Critical Thinking About Research: Psychology and Related Fields.   Julian Meltzoff. (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1998).   [BF 76.5 M45 1998] Also available at Dewey in Reference. Contains examples of research articles and discussion of ethical issues to consider.

Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination. Chris Hart. (London: Sage Publications, Ltd., 1998).   [H 62 H2568X 1998] Also available in Dewey Library.   This book is designed to help students and novice researchers plan and prepare a literature review. Some of the topics examined are: classifying and reading research, mapping and analyzing ideas, argumention analysis, and writing the review. Included are appendices on the proposal, how to cite references, and the presentation of a dissertation.

Lexicon of Psychiatry, Neurology, and the Neurosciences.   Frank J.  Ayd, Jr. 2nd ed. (Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 2000). [REF  RC 334 A96 2000]   Descriptions of drugs and drug interactions listed alphabetically by generic name.  Proprietary names are listed after the main entry for the generic name.  Journal and book citations are made at the end  of some of the entries to refer the reader to further information on the topic.

Major Psychological Assessment Instruments.  Charles S. Newmark, ed. 2nd ed. (Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1996). [REF BF 176 M35 1996]

Mental Health Desk Reference.  Elizabeth Welfel and R. Elliot Ingersoll. (New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001). [REF  RC 466 M464 2001]   The first five chapters deal with assessment and treatment, while the last two sections of this reference focus on legal and ethical topics.   Chapters focus on the needs of a variety of clients from children and adolescents to the elderly, and from individuals to communities.  Topics include: management of personality disorders, eating disorders, child maltreatment, counseling older adults in institutional settings, etc.  Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy are also explored. 

PNDR, Psychologists' Neuropsychotropic Drug Reference.    Louis A. Pagliaro.  (Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel, 1999). [REF RM 315 P32526   1999]    Organized alphabetically by generic name (with trade names listed in the entries), this reference    contains listings for over 80 prescription neuropsychotropic drugs commonly available in North America.  Included in the entries are classifications, the USDEA schedule designations for abuse potential, recommended dosages, available dosage forms, contraindications, etc.  Appendices contain a classification of neuropsychotropic drugs, US Drug Enforcement Agency schedule designations, FDA pregnancy categories, and abbreviations and symbols.

Psychology: A Guide to Reference and Information Sources.   Pam M. Baxter. (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1993). [REF BF 121 Z999 B39X 1993]   A comprehensive guide which provides in-depth descriptions of several library   resources, journals, and key bibliographies to specific subjects in psychology.   A useful beginning point for understanding the range of resources available.

Psychology: An Introductory Bibliography. Susan E.   Beers, ed. (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1996). [REF BF 121 Z999 P79 1996]   Annotations accompany the citations in this reference. Subjects include: developmental   psychology, social psychology, personality, and psychotherapy. Citations are   generally from the 1970s to the 1990s.

Psychology Basics. Frank N. Magill, ed. 2 v. (Pasadena,   CA: Salem Press, 1998). [REF BF 31 P765 1998]   Arranged alphabetically by subject, this source contains 110 articles on topics such as social psychology, memory, intelligence, personality, and others.  Summaries and key terms and definitions accompany the articles.  A glossary is also included. 

Research Guide for Psychology.  Raymond   G. McInnis. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982). [BF 76.5 Z999 M35X]   A well organized, comprehensive listing of sources which organizes and provides access to psychological literature as well as related fields.

Psychologists' Desk Reference. Gerald P. Koocher,   John C. Norcross, and Sam S. Hill III, eds. (New York, NY; Oxford: Oxford University   Press, 1998). [REF RC 467.2 P78 1998] Also available in Science.   A variety of theoretical orientations, diagnostic codes, test information treatment principles, ethics, and practice guidelines. Useful for students and practicing clinicians.

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.   6th ed. (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2010). [REF LB 2369 A62X]  Also available in Science and Dewey Libraries.   A style manual that serves as a guide for citing resources in bibliographies and for publication submission. Used to cite sources used in term papers in psychology as well as several other social science disciplines. Also used to prepare manuscripts for publication according to APA style.  APA Style Guide to Electronic References is an electronic supplement that offers rules for citing electronic sources.   (Print version REF LB 2369 A63X 2012).

Test Critiques. v. 1-10.(Kansas City, MO: Test Corporation  of America, 1984-). [REF BF 176 T419 1984-] Background, critique, and evaluation of psychological tests. Includes information on authors of tests  as well as literature on reliability and validity of tests. The title index of tests  in the most recent volume is cumulative for all volumes.  



21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook.   Stephen F. Davis, William Buskist, editors.  Sage eReference, (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, 2008.

Ashgate Research Companion to Queer Theory. Noreen Giffney, Michael O’Rourke. 2009.  [REF HQ 76.25 A83 2009]

The Mystery of Personality: A History of Psychodynamic Theories. Eugene Taylor.  (Library of the history of psychology theories) (New York: Springer, 2009).  [BF 698 T389X 2009]

Handbook of Child Psychology. William Damon. (New   York: J. Wiley, c1998). [DEWEY REF BF 721 H242 1998]

Handbook of Child Psychopathology. Thomas H. Ollendick & Michel Hersen, eds. (New York: Plenum Press, 1998). [SCIENCE RJ 499.3 H36 1998]

Handbook of Psychology. Irving B. Weiner. Hoboken, editor. ( N.J : Wiley, 2013). [BF 121 H1955 2013]

International Handbook of Psychology. Albert R. Gilgen and Carol K. Gilgen, eds. (New York, NY: Greenwood Press, 1987). [REF   BF 105 I57 1987]   Scholarly essays providing international perspectives on psychology.



American Men and Women of Science: Social and Behavioral Sciences.   Jaques Cattell Press, ed. 13th ed. (New York, NY: R.R. Bowker, 1978). [OVER   (*) H 57 A54X 1978]   A biographical directory for all areas of the social sciences for individuals   who have received recognition through achievement or research, or attained a   position of substantial responsibility. Contains geographical and discipline   indexes. See also American Men & Women of Science: A Biographical Directory of Today's Leaders in Physical, Biological, and Related Sciences, 2003, an e-book found on the Search Tool. Note: The 2003 source includes biological, but not social and behavioral sciences.

APA Membership Register. (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2000). [BF 11 A672X]  The membership register is published in years when a directory is not produced.  Contains brief entries, with a divisional (area of specialization) index.

Directory Internship Programs in Professional Psychology (APIC). 31st ed. (Washington, DC: Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers, 2003). [BF 77 D57X]  Arranged by state, this directory offers information concering internship and   postdoctoral programs in psychology. Entries include application requirements,  stipends, treatment modalities, and specialty areas.

Directory of Ethnic Minority Professionals in Psychology. 2nd ed. (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1990).  [BF 30 D57X 1990]   According to the forward, "a prime purpose for the Directory was to   identify ethnic minority psychologists within the profession." This resource is organized into three  sections: Ethnicity, Geographics,  and Demographics. Four major ethnic groupings are used: American Native/Alaskan   Native, Asian/Asian American/Pacific Islander, Black/African American, and Hispanic/Latino.  Entries include: Name, Business Affiliation, Address, Telephone Number, Ethnicity, Degree, Major Field in Psychology, Degree Year, and Specialty Areas in Psychology.   

Directory of the American Psychological Association.   (Washington, DC: The Association, 2001). [BF 11 A67]   Also available in Dewey.   Includes names, addresses, professional positions and areas of specialization of American psychologists. Also contains official information (officers, statistics,   bylaws) on the APA.

Eminent Contributors to Psychology. Robert Irving   Watson, ed. 2 v. (New York, NY: Springer, 1974). [REF BF 121 Z999 W37X]   Volume 1 is a bibliography of primary references of 500 individuals living between 1600-1967. Volume 2 is a bibliography of secondary references to the same persons.   Number of references are in proportion to the importance of the persons and   each is rated on a scale of eminence. For noted women in psychology, see also: Models of Achievement: Reflections of Eminent Women in Psychology. [BF 109 A1 M6 1983]

The National Directory of Bereavement Support Groups and Services.   (Forest Hills, NY: ADM Pub., 1996). [REF BF 575 G7 N38X] Also available in Dewey. Comprised of four major sections, this reference contains articles dealing with different types of bereavement along with a selection of support groups.  Support group listings are arranged alphabetically by state.  A listing of conferences and seminars by month and a bibliography are also included; however, they may be out of date.  This source is useful to understand the various types of support groups available. 

Return to Top



A Psychiatric Glossary. American Psychiatric Association.  Joint Commission on Public Affairs. 5th ed. (Washington, DC: The Association, 1980). [SCI RC 437 A5 1975]   Provides clear and concise definitions of terms most frequently used in psychiatry.

Biographical Dictionary of Psychology. Noel Sheehy, Antony J. Chapman, and Wendy A. Conroy, eds. (New York, NY: Routledge Reference, 1997). [REF BF 109 A1 B56 1997] Also available in Dewey.   Approximately 500 individuals from both North America and Europe who have had a significant impact on the field of psychology are included in this dictionary.   Entries consist of information regarding the life and work of each of the indviduals chosen.

The Concise Dictionary of Psychology.  David A. Statt. 3rd ed. (New York, NY: Routledge, 1998). [REF BF 31 S62 1998] Created to help students to better understand psychological terms, this dictionary contains examples of how the terms are used along with "see also" references to additional information. See also APA Concise Dictionary of Psychology 1st ed. (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2009). [REF BF 31 A65 2009].

Dictionary of Theories, Laws, and Concepts in Psychology.  Jon E. Roeckelein. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998). [REF BF 31 R625X 1998]   This resource consists of overiews of concepts, general theories, and theories credited to individuals. Also included are citations to theories that provide information which may allow users to locate original publications.

The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology. Arthur S. Reber, Rhiannon Allen & Emily S. Reber. 2009.  [REF BF 31 R43 2009].

Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms. American Psychological Association. 9th ed. (Washington, DC: The Association, 2001).   [REF Z 695.1 P7 T48] Also available in Dewey.   A list of terms related to psychological concepts. Divided into alphabetical   and relationship sections, it provides descriptor/subject terms used in Psychological Abstracts. The same index is duplicated electronically in PsycINFO under "Thesaurus."

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology. James M. Baldwin, ed. 3 v. (Gloucester, MA: P.S. Smith, 1901). [B 41 B3 1901]  Authoritative for the period written and still useful. Helps in understanding the meaning of terms and interprets the movements and developments of thought. There are concise definitions, longer articles, and some biographies.

Psychiatric Dictionary.  Robert Jean Campbell. 9th ed. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009). [REF RC 437 H5 2009]  Definitions and longer explanations of terms used in psychiatry and allied fields.

A Dictionary of Psychology. Andrew M. Colman. 3rd ed. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009). [BF 31 C65 2009] With over 11,000 authoritative and up-to-date entries, this best-selling dictionary covers all branches of psychology, including psychoanalysis, psychiatry, criminology, neuroscience, and statistics. Features over 80 illustrations, recommended web links, and lists of abbreviations, symbols, phobias and phobic stimuli with full definitions.

A Comprehensive Dictionary of Psychological and Psychoanalytical Terms: A Guide to Usage. Horace Bidwell English. (New York, NY:  Longmans, 1958). [BF 31 E58] Also available at REF.  A good basic dictionary for nomenclature in psychology as well as relevant terms  for mathematics, medicine, and other related fields. Good cross references.

A Dictionary of Statistics for Psychologists.  Brian S. Everitt and Til Wykes. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1999). [REF BF 39 E83X 1999]   Defining more than 1,500 terms, this dictionary features the inclusion of references to publications in which particular terms are used.  Cross-references are provided, as well as some graphical or numerical examples to accompany term definitions.

Key Words in Multicultural Interventions: A Dictionary.  Jeffrey Scott Mio, ed. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999). [REF BF 637 C6 K493 1999]   This reference contains, "words that are typically used in the field of multicultural counseling and psychotherapy."  Contributors to the dictionary were asked to provide the origins of the words listed as well as the multiple meanings attached to each.  Terms included in this source were selected by the editiors by examining journal articles, conference proceedings, monogaphs, and other materials. 

Dictionary of Behavioral Science.  Benjamin B. Wolman. (New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1973). [REF BF 31 W64]   This dictionary covers all areas of psychology. Includes appendices for classification   of mental disorders and ethical standards of psychology.



Boy Culture: An Encyclopedia. Shirley R. Steinberg, Michael Kehler, and Lindsay Cornish, editors. (Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2010). [REF BF 692.5 B69 2010]

The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science. W. Edward Craighead and Charles B. Nemeroff, eds. 4th ed. 4 v. (Hoboken, N.J.:   Wiley, 2010). [REF BF 31 E52 2010] Also available in Dewey.   Entries in this reference consist of topics and individuals in psychology.  Bibliographies are included with each entry.  

Encyclopedia of Adult Development. Robert Kastenbaum,  ed. (Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1993). [REF BF 724.5 E53 1993] Also available in Dewey. Composed of 106 articles written by contributors from a range of disciplines, this resource explores topics such as humor, divorce, exercise, and language development.  The focus is on adult development; however, other stages of development are also touched upon.  Articles include biblographies. 

The Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Stephen G. Post 3rd ed. 5v  (New York, N.Y.: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004). [REF QH 332 E52 2004]. Also available [Online / QH 332 E52 2004 WWW].  This 5 volume set is composed of entries by contributors from a variety of fields including psychology, philosophy, religion, language, etc. Entries vary in length with some containing several articles on a given topic.  Bibliographies and cross references are included, and a substantial appendix in volume 5 contains codes, oathes, and directives pertaining to patients, health care providers, human research, the welfare and use of animals, and the environment. There is also a section on additional resources in bioethics in this volume.

Encyclopedia of Cyber Behavior. Zheng Yan, editor. (Hershey, PA : Information Science Reference, 2012). [BF 637 C45 E53 2012].

Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Lynn Nadel, ed. 4 v. (New York, NY: Nature Publishing Group, 2003). [REF BF 311 E53X 2003]  Made up of four volumes, this encyclopedia offers both introductory and intermediate articles on topics related to cognitive science.  Articles contain references and sections on further reading.  Some entries also contain black and white photographs or illustrations.  A glossary and a subject index are included as well.   

Encyclopedia of Creativity. Mark A. Runco and Seven R. Pritzker, eds. 2 v. (San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999). [REF BF 408 E53 1999]  Topics such as tests for creativity, theories of creativity, and "thought processes associated with creative thinking," are included in this reference.  One appendix, "selectively reviews tests, inventories, and rating scales used to assess creativity."  Biographical information about creative individuals is also available. 

Encyclopedia of Educational Research. Marvin C. Alkin, ed. 6th ed. 4 v. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 1992). [LB 15 E48 1992] Also available in Dewey.   Long valued in the field of education, the entries in this four-volume encyclopedia are organized under 16 broad topic headings. Includes numerous long articles on psychological topics. Entries are signed and include bibliographies.

Encyclopedia of Emotion. Gretchen M. Reevy with the assistance of Yvette Malamud Ozer and Yuri Ito. Author Reevy, Gretchen. Added Author Ozer, Yvette Malamud. Ito, Yuri. (Santa Barbara, Calif. : Greenwood, 2010). [BF 531 R445 2010]

Encyclopedia of Mental Health. Howard S. Friedman, ed. 3 v. (San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1998). [REF RA 790.5 E53 1998]   Also available in Dewey. This source "takes a broad approach, examining the psychological, biological, social, and cultural factors relating to mental health." Topics covered include cognitive therapy, behavioral genetics, agoraphobia, hypertension, television viewing, and others.See also The Encyclopedia of Mental Health Ada P. Kahn, Jan Fawcett. 3rd ed. (New York, N.Y. : Facts On File, 2008). [SCI REF RC 437 K34 2008] Also available at Dewey.

The Encyclopedia of Positive Psychology. Edited by Shane J. Lopez.  2 v. (Malden, MA : Wiley-Blackwell Pub., 2009) [REF BF 204.6 E53 2009].

The Encyclopedia of Psychology. Alan E. Kazdin, ed. 8 v. (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2000). [REF BF 31 E523X 2000] Also available in Dewey. Areas covered in this resource of 1,500 articles include, but are not limited to, clinical psychology, psychological testing and assessment, and cross-cultural psychology.

Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior. Albert Ellis and Albert Abarbanel, eds. 2 v. (New York,   NY: Hawthorne, 1961). [REF HQ 9 E4] [HQ 9 E4]  Prepared by two psychotherapists(editors) with the aid of contributors from various fields. A well-rounded treatment.

Encyclopedia of Time: Science, Philosophy, Theology, & Culture. H. James Birx, ed. 3 v. (Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2009). [REF BD 638 E525 2009]

The Freud Encyclopedia: Theory, Therapy, and Culture. Edward Erwin, ed. (New York, NY: Routledge, 2002). [REF BF 173 F6176 2002]  "Among the unique features of the encyclopedia are articles that examine the history and current state of psychoanalysis in some twenty-five countries on all the continents." Included in this reference are not only entries on Freud's theories and methods of therapy, but, as the subtitle suggests, entries that examine Freud's impact on culture (art, literature, etc.) as well. Includes entries on individuals who influenced or were influenced by Freud.

International Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychoanalysis, and Neurology. Benjamin B. Wolman, ed. 12 v. (New York, NY: Aesculapius   Publishers, 1983). [REF RC 334 I573 1983]   Two thousand authorities have contributed to this monumental work of scientific data pertaining to human nature, its deficiencies, and their treatment. Articles are signed and conclude with short bibliographies. There are frequent cross-references to related fields and topics. Name and subject indexes are included.

International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2001+.   Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, eds. 26 v. (New York, NY: Elsevier, 2001)   [REF H 41 I58 2001]  Covers all areas of the social sciences. Includes almost 4,000 signed articles, 90,000 bibliographical references, over 150 biographies.

International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences.   David L. Sills, ed. 18 v. (New York, NY: Macmillan Co., 1968, 1972). [DEWEY   REF H 40 A2 I5]   Quite comprehensive in coverage and useful as access to basic literature in all of all the social sciences, including the fields of psychiatry and psychology.   Many articles are biographical. Good bibliographies. An excellent index volume gives entry to entire set.

Learning & Memory. John H. Byrne, ed. 2nd ed.   (New York, NY: Macmillan Reference USA/Thomson/Gale, 2003). [REF BF   318 E53 2003]   Arranged alphabetically by topics concerning learning and memory, this encyclopedia also contains biographical information on individuals who "contributed to the   current understanding of learning and memory." Bibliographies accompany entries.

The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. Robert   A. Wilson and Frank C. Keil, eds. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999). [REF   BF 311 M556 1999]   Containing more than 450 essays, this resource also includes introductory essays that examine six major disciplines comprising cognitive science.  Topics examined include fuzzy logic, language acquisition, aphasia, sterotyping, and animal communication.  A list of further reading is included with entries. 

Return to Top


Government Information from the University at Albany Libraries



American Statistics Index.  The American Statistics Index (ASI) indexes the statistical publications of the United States government, state governments, intergovernmental entities, and some associations.The earlier version, the fiche and paper indexes for American Statistics Index. 1973+. (Bethesda, MD:   Congressional Information Service). [Z 7554 U5 A46]  are located in the Periodicals and Microform Room. Also available in Dewey.  The paper index volume serves as a name, category, and subject index to the abstracts volume. The abstracts volume, arranged by issuing agency, contains complete bibliographic information on the publication. Monthly with annual and multi-year cumulations. 

A Dictionary of Statistics for Psychologists.    Brian S. Everitt and Til Wykes. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1999). [REF BF 39 E83X 1999]    Defining more than 1,500 terms, this dictionary features the inclusion of references to publications in which particular terms are used.  Cross-references are provided, as well as some graphical or numerical examples to accompany term definitions.

Sociometrics Health   and Social Science Data Library.

Statistical Abstract of the United States. 1995-2002. (Print editions   1878+. Annual.) (Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census).   [REF HA 202] Also available in Dewey and Science.   Latest issue shelved in Ready Reference. Previous years are kept on the reference   shelves at Main. Only the last 5 years are kept in Science reference. An annual statistical summary of the social, political, and economic data about the United   States. Includes governmental and private sources. These volumes provide useful tables and charts from thousands of federal statistical publications. Included are statistics on expenditures, federal food programs, child support, child abuse, household and family data, etc. Includes a guide to sources of statistics.

Statistical Methods for Psychology. David C. Howell.  (Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning, 2001). [DEWEY REF BF  39 H69 2001]

Statistical Reference Index. 1980+. [REF HA 195 Z999 S78X] Also available in Dewey.   A selective guide to American statistical publications from sources other than the U.S. Government. Monthly with annual cumulation. It contains national, state, foreign, and a small amount of local data. Arrangement is ordered by source  organization. The index volume allows access by subject, category, issuing source, and title. Also indexes (with abstracts) statistical publications of private organizations.



Subject Guide

Deborah LaFond's picture
Deborah LaFond
University Library
LI 205
1400 Washington Ave.
Albany, NY 12222
Website Skype Contact: fondulacd

What are Reference Sources?

Reference sources are tools that lead researchers to lists of sources on a topic.  They can assist the researcher in identifying the broad scope of an area and generally offer a list of sources within a particular scope.   They provide beginning places for the researcher to identify sources on a topic.  Reference tools are considered "tertiary" sources in that they offer primary and secondary sources for specific topics.  They can be called Guides, Directories, Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Indexes, Bibliographies, Biographical indexes.