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New Book Shelf
Note: new books are initially placed on the New Books shelf located on the 1st floor of the Science Library, across from the Circulation Desk.
New Books: Fall '20 - Summer '21
The Alchemy of Us by
Publication Date: 2020-02-07
In the bestselling tradition of Stuff Matters and The Disappearing Spoon: a clever and engaging look at materials, the innovations they made possible, and how these technologies changed us. In The Alchemy of Us, scientist and science writer Ainissa Ramirez examines eight inventions--clocks, steel rails, copper communication cables, photographic film, light bulbs, hard disks, scientific labware, and silicon chips--and reveals how they shaped the human experience. Ramirez tells the stories of the woman who sold time, the inventor who inspired Edison, and the hotheaded undertaker whose invention pointed the way to the computer. She describes, among other things, how our pursuit of precision in timepieces changed how we sleep; how the railroad helped commercialize Christmas; how the necessary brevity of the telegram influenced Hemingway's writing style; and how a young chemist exposed the use of Polaroid's cameras to create passbooks to track Black citizens in apartheid South Africa. These fascinating and inspiring stories offer new perspectives on our relationships with technologies. Ramirez shows not only how materials were shaped by inventors but also how those materials shaped culture, chronicling each invention and its consequences--intended and unintended. Filling in the gaps left by other books about technology, Ramirez showcases little-known inventors--particularly people of color and women--who had a significant impact but whose accomplishments have been hidden by mythmaking, bias, and convention. Doing so, she shows us the power of telling inclusive stories about technology. She also shows that innovation is universal--whether it's splicing beats with two turntables and a microphone or splicing genes with two test tubes and CRISPR.
Analyzing Materials Using Joint X-Ray Fluorescence and Diffraction Spectra by
Publication Date: 2019
This book presents a complex approach to material composition determination based on the analysis of the joint X-ray spectrum, including fluorescence, scattering, and diffraction reflections. It considers fluorescence, scattered, and diffracted radiations within the common problem of analytical spectrum formation. The complex methods for analyzing the material composition by joint spectra of fluorescence, Compton scattering and diffraction proposed here allow for a widening of the area of the application of X-ray methods.The book will be useful for specialists in the field of solid state physics, as well as advanced and post-graduate students.
Antimony, Gold, and Jupiter's Wolf: How the Elements Were Named by
Publication Date: 2020
How did the elements get their names? The origins of californium may be obvious, but what about oxygen? Investigating their origins takes Peter Wothers deep into history. Drawing on a wide variety of original sources, he brings to light the astonishing, the unusual, and the downright weird origins behind the element names we take for granted.
The Chemical Age: How Chemists Fought Famine and Disease, Killed Millions, and Changed Our Relationship with the Earth by
Publication Date: 2020
For thousands of years, we've found ways to scorch, scour, and sterilize our surroundings to make them safer. Sometimes these methods are wonderfully effective. Often, however, they come with catastrophic consequences-consequences that aren't typically understood for generations. The Chemical Age tells the captivating story of the scientists who waged war on famine and disease with chemistry. With depth and verve, Frank A. von Hippel explores humanity's uneasy coexistence with pests, and how their existence, and the battles to exterminate them, have shaped our modern world. Beginning with the potato blight tragedy of the 1840s, which led scientists on an urgent mission to prevent famine using pesticides, von Hippel traces the history of pesticide use to the 1960s, when Rachel Carson's Silent Spring revealed that those same chemicals were insidiously damaging our health and driving species toward extinction. Telling the story of these pesticides in vivid detail, von Hippel showcases the thrills and complex consequences of scientific discovery. He describes the invention of substances that could protect crops, the emergence of our understanding of the way diseases spread, the creation of chemicals used to kill pests and people, and, finally, how scientists turned those wartime chemicals on the landscape at a massive scale, prompting the vital environmental movement that continues today. The Chemical Age is a dynamic, sweeping history that exposes how humankind's affinity for pesticides made the modern world possible-while also threatening its essential fabric.
Chemical Analysis in Cultural Heritage by
Publication Date: 2019-02-19
Chemical Analysis provides non invasive and micro-analytical techniques for the investigation of cultural heritage materials. The tools and techniques, discussed by experts in the field, are of universal, sensitive and multi-component nature.
Chemical Kinetics: Beyond the Textbook by
Publication Date: 2019-06-03
Processes involving randomly moving particles, which react either upon encounter or via distance-dependent reaction rates, are ubiquitous in nature. A few stray examples are recombination of ions or holes and electrons, excitation energy migration and quenching, trapping of particles by other species, coagulation, binding of ligands and proteins to specific sites, chemotaxis, catalytically-induced self-propulsion, polymerization, growth of dendrites or aggregates, or nuclei of a new phase.Several decades ago, it was recognized that the kinetic behavior in some systems with reactions and random transport is strongly affected by many factors, which were not taken into account in previous studies. These are, to name but a few, fluctuations in the spatial distributions of the reactants and fluctuations of the reactivity, some essentially many-particle phenomena, effects of anomalous diffusion, molecular crowding, as well as the internal geometry of the reaction bath. Within recent years, along with a growing interest in chemical processes ocurring in biological systems or cellular environments, numerous advances have been made and considerable knowledge has been acquired. These seminal contributions are, however, scattered among many journals and no attempt has been made so far to present a unified picture.This book presents a general overview of different contemporary facets of chemical kinetics in a variety of different environments. It includes 23 seminal works and reviews on different aspects of reaction processes in chemical, physical and biophysical systems, both theoretical and experimental.
The Chemical Philosophy of Robert Boyle: Mechanicism, Chymical Atoms, and Emergence by
Publication Date: 2020
This book examines the way in which Robert Boyle seeks to accommodate his complex chemical philosophy within the framework of a mechanistic theory of matter. More specifically, the book proposes that Boyle regards chemical qualities as properties that emerge from the mechanistic structure of chymical atoms. Within Boyle’s chemical ontology, chymical atoms are structured concretions of particles that Boyle regards as chemically elementary entities, that is, as chemical wholes that resist experimental analysis. Although this interpretation of Boyle’s chemical philosophy has already been suggested by other Boyle scholars, the present book provides a sustained philosophical argument to demonstrate that, for Boyle, chemical properties are dispositional, relational, emergent, and supervenient properties. This argument is strengthened by a detailed mereological analysis of Boylean chymical atoms that establishes the kind of theory of wholes and parts that is most consistent with his emergentist conception of chemical properties. The emergentist position that is being attributed to Boyle supports his view that chemical reactions resist direct explanation in terms of the mechanistic properties of fundamental particles, as well as his position regarding the scientific autonomy of chemistry from mechanics and physics.
Crystallography and Crystal Defects by
Publication Date: 2020-06-02
The classic book that presents a unified approach to crystallography and the defects found within crystals, revised and updated This new edition of Crystallography and Crystal Defects explains the modern concepts of crystallography in a clear, succinct manner and shows how to apply these concepts in the analyses of point, line and planar defects in crystalline materials. Fully revised and updated, this book now includes: Original source references to key crystallographic terms familiar to materials scientists Expanded discussion on the elasticity of cubic materials New content on texture that contains more detail on Euler angles, orientation distribution functions and an expanded discussion on examples of textures in engineering materials Additional content on dislocations in materials of symmetry lower than cubic An expanded discussion of twinning which includes the description and classification of growth twins The inclusion and explanation of results from atomistic modelling of twin boundaries Problem sets with new questions, detailed worked solutions, supplementary lecture material and online computer programs for crystallographic calculations. Written by authors with extensive lecturing experience at undergraduate level, Crystallography and Crystal Defects, Third Edition continues to take its place as the core text on the topic and provides the essential resource for students and researchers in metallurgy, materials science, physics, chemistry, electrical, civil and mechanical engineering.
Electroanalytical Chemistry by
Publication Date: 2020-01-27
Provides a strong foundation in electrochemical principles and best practices Written for undergraduate majors in chemistry and chemical engineering, this book teaches the basic principles of electroanalytical chemistry and illustrates best practices through the use of case studies of organic reactions and catalysis using voltammetric methods and of the measurement of clinical and environmental analytes by potentiometric techniques. It provides insight beyond the field of analysis as students address problems arising in many areas of science and technology. The book also emphasizes electrochemical phenomena and conceptual models to help readers understand the influence of experimental conditions and the interpretation of results for common potentiometric and voltammetric methods. Electroanalytical Chemistry: Principles, Best Practices, and Case Studies begins by introducing some basic concepts in electrical phenomena. It then moves on to a chapter that examines the potentiometry of oxidation-reduction processes, followed by another on the potentiometry of ion selective electrodes. Other sections look at: applications of ion selective electrodes; controlled potential methods; case studies in controlled potential methods; and instrumentation. The book also features several appendixes covering: Ionic Strength, Activity and Activity Coefficients; The Nicolsky-Eisenman Equation; The Henderson Equation for Liquid Junction Potentials; Selected Standard Electrode Potentials; and The Nernst Equation Derivation. Introduces the principles of modern electrochemical sensors and instrumental chemical analysis using potentiometric and voltammetric methods Develops conceptual models underlying electrochemical phenomena and useful equations Illustrates best practice with short case studies of organic reaction mechanisms using voltammetry and quantitative analysis with ion selective electrodes Offers instructors the opportunity to select focus areas and tailor the book to their course by providing a collection of shorter texts, each dedicated to a single field Intended as one of a series of modules for teaching undergraduate courses in instrumental chemical analysis Electroanalytical Chemistry: Principles, Best Practices, and Case Studies is an ideal textbook for undergraduate majors in chemistry and chemical engineering taking instrumental analysis courses. It would also benefit professional chemists who need an introduction to potentiometry or voltammetry.
Frontiers of Organofluorine Chemistry by
Publication Date: 2019-10-01
This book focuses on the new frontiers of organofluorine chemistry in synthetic, organometallic, bioorganic, medicinal, agricultural, and materials chemistry as well as chemical physics and their applications to biomedical and material sciences. The extraordinary potential of fluorine-containing molecules in biology, pharmaceuticals, agrochemical, materials and their wide range of applications has been recognized by researchers who are not in the traditional fluorine chemistry field, and thus the new wave of organofluorine chemistry is rapidly expanding its frontiers.Featuring major leading researchers from all over the world and their cutting-edge research projects, this title reviews the recent advances and envision the new exciting developments in the future. Frontiers of Organofluorine Chemistry is an excellent reference book for professional researchers, and graduate students, in both industry and academia to get inspirations and new ideas for their projects.
Heterogeneous Catalytic Redox Reactions by
Publication Date: 2019-10-21
The current book brings together cutting-edge research in the area of heterogeneous catalytic redox processes. The first part of the book covers the catalytic properties of transition metal oxides and the techniques for catalysts preparation, such as mechanochemistry, plasmochemistry, hydrothermal treatment, etc. Further the authors focus on mechanisms of heterogeneous redox reactions followed by the overview of industrial applications.
Micro-Raman Spectroscopy by
Publication Date: 2020-02-10
Micro-Raman Spectroscopy introduces readers to the theory and application of Raman microscopy. Raman microscopy is used to study the chemical signature of samples with little preperation in a non-destructive manner. An easy to use technique with ever increasing technological advances, Micro-Raman has significant application for researchers in the fields of materials science, medicine, pharmaceuticals, and chemistry.
Niels Bohr: a Very Short Introduction by
Publication Date: 2020-06-01
Niels Bohr, who pioneered the quantum theory of the atom, had a broad conception of his obligations as a physicist. They included not only a responsibility for the consequences of his work for the wider society, but also a compulsion to apply the philosophy he deduced from his physics toimproving ordinary people's understanding of the moral universe they inhabit. In some of these concerns Bohr resembled Einstein, although Einstein could not accept what he called the "tranquilizing philosophy" with which Bohr tried to resolve such ancient conundrums as the nature (or possibility) offree will.In this Very Short Introduction John Heilbron draws on sources never before presented in English to cover the life and work of one of the most creative physicists of the 20th century. In addition to his role as a scientist, Heilbron considers Bohr as a statesman and Danish cultural icon, who builtscientific institutions and pushed for the extension of international cooperation in science to all nation states. As a humanist he was concerned with the cultivation of all sides of the individual, and with the complementary contributions of all peoples to the sum of human culture. Throughout,Heilbron considers how all of these aspects of Bohr's personality influenced his work, as well as the science that made him, in the words of Sir Henry Dale, President of the Royal Society of London, probably the "first among all the men of all countries who are now active in any department ofscience."ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, andenthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Physics of Elasticity and Crystal Defects by
Publication Date: 2020
Mechanical properties of crystalline materials are almost always dominated by the defects within them. The ability to shape metals into pipes, girders and furniture stems from the generation, motion and interaction of these defects. Defects are also the agents of chemical changes within crystals, enabling mass transport by atomic diffusion and changes of phase. Defects distort the crystal and these distortions enable defects to interact over large distances. The theory of elasticity is used to describe these interactions. Assuming no familiarity with the theory, this book introduces the reader to linear elasticity and its application to point defects, dislocations and cracks. A unique feature of the book is the attention given to the atomic structure of defects and its influence on their properties and their elastic fields. Where it is available brief biographical information is provided about prominent contributors to the field. This textbook is written for postgraduate students in physics, engineering and materials science. It is very likely that even those students with some knowledge of elasticity and defects will find much that is new to them in this book.There are exercises to help the student check their understanding as they work through each chapter. The student is guided through more advanced problems at the end of each chapter. Worked solutions to all exercises and problems are available to course instructors from the OUP website. The last chapter describes four technologically important areas requiring fundamental research, with suggestions for possible PhD projects.
Pioneering British Women Chemists: Their Lives and Contributions by
Publication Date: 2019-11-25
Historically, British chemistry has been perceived as a solely male endeavour. However, this perception is untrue: the allure of chemistry has attracted British women for centuries past. Since the 1880s, women chemists have studied academic chemistry and made interesting and significant contributions to their fields, yet they have been absent from the historical record. This book rectifies the gaps, providing a well-researched glimpse into the forgotten world of British women in chemistry from 1880-1949.This title showcases the determination of these women to survive and flourish in their chosen field. The authors show how women were fascinated by chemistry long before the modern era; unravelled the complex saga of chemistry at girls' secondary schools; found the other avenues by which women chemists pursued their love of the subject; and discovered a unifying passion for chemistry and poetry that extended from grade school to university and industrial employment.
Practical Synthetic Organic Chemistry by
Publication Date: 2020-01-31
This book is a hands-on guide for the organic chemist. Focusing on the most reliable and useful reactions, the chapter authors provide the information necessary for a chemist to strategically plan a synthesis, as well as repeat the procedures in the laboratory. Consolidates all the key advances/concepts in one book, covering the most important reactions in organic chemistry, including substitutions, additions, eliminations, rearrangements, oxidations, reductions Highlights the most important reactions, addressing basic principles, advantages/disadvantages of the methodology, mechanism, and techniques for achieving laboratory success Features new content on recent advances in CH activation, photoredox and electrochemistry, continuous chemistry, and application of biocatalysis in synthesis Revamps chapters to include new and additional examples of chemistry that have been demonstrated at a practical scale
Quantum Chemistry and Dynamics of Excited States by
Publication Date: 2020-11-10
An introduction to the rapidly evolving methodology of electronic excited states For academic researchers, postdocs, graduate and undergraduate students, Quantum Chemistry and Dynamics of Excited States: Methods and Applications reports the most updated and accurate theoretical techniques to treat electronic excited states. From methods to deal with stationary calculations through time-dependent simulations of molecular systems, this book serves as a guide for beginners in the field and knowledge seekers alike. Taking into account the most recent theory developments and representative applications, it also covers the often-overlooked gap between theoretical and computational chemistry. An excellent reference for both researchers and students, Excited States provides essential knowledge on quantum chemistry, an in-depth overview of the latest developments, and theoretical techniques around the properties and nonadiabatic dynamics of chemical systems. Readers will learn: ● Essential theoretical techniques to describe the properties and dynamics of chemical systems ● Electronic Structure methods for stationary calculations ● Methods for electronic excited states from both a quantum chemical and time-dependent point of view ● A breakdown of the most recent developments in the past 30 years For those searching for a better understanding of excited states as they relate to chemistry, biochemistry, industrial chemistry, and beyond, Quantum Chemistry and Dynamics of Excited States provides a solid education in the necessary foundations and important theories of excited states in photochemistry and ultrafast phenomena.
Publication Date: 2020-11-07
Thermodynamics: Principles Characterizing Physical and Chemical Processes, Fifth Edition is an authoritative guide on the physical and chemical processes based on classical thermodynamic principles. Emphasis is placed on fundamental principles, with a combination of theory and practice that demonstrates their applications in a variety of disciplines. Revised and updated to include new material and novel formulations, this edition features a new chapter on algebraic power laws and Fisher information theory, along with detailed updates on irreversible phenomena, Landau theory, self-assembly, Caratheodory's theorem, and the effects of externally applied fields. Drawing on the experience of its expert author, this book is a useful tool for both graduate students, professional chemists, and physicists who wish to acquire a more sophisticated overview of thermodynamics and related subject matter. Updated to reflect the latest developments in the field, including a new chapter on algebraic power laws and Fisher information theory Includes clear explanations of abstract theoretical concepts Provides exhaustive coverage of graphical, numerical and analytical computational techniques
The transmutations of chymistry : Wilhelm Homberg and the Académie royale des sciences by
Publication Date: 2020
"This book resurrects science history between Robert Boyle and Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier by telling the story of a remarkable genius who devised an innovative, comprehensive, and experimentally based theory of alchemy/chemistry (called chymistry) that was widely celebrated and adopted both in his own time and after. Wilhelm Homberg (1653-1715) is a bridge between traditions: he held an expansive vision for chymistry as a natural philosophical discipline while at the same time continued to pursue metallic transmutation, only lightly veiled in his official publications. In Lawrence M. Principe's hands, Holmberg's life and work, particularly at the Académie Royale, provide new insights on several of the significant changes that chymistry underwent during and immediately after his lifetime. This new biography radically revises what was previously known about the contours of chymistry and scientific institutions in the early eighteenth century"-- Provided by publisher
Publication Date: 2020
The term “element” is typically used in two distinct senses. First it is taken to mean isolated simple substances such as the green gas chlorine or the yellow solid sulphur. In some languages, including English, it is also used to denote an underlying abstract concept that subsumes simple substances but possesses no properties as such. The allotropes and isotopes of carbon, for example, all represent elements in the sense of simple substances. However, the unique position for the element carbon in the periodic table refers to the abstract sense of “element.” The dual definition of elements proposed by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry contrasts an abstract meaning and an operational one. Nevertheless, the philosophical aspects of this notion are not fully captured by the IUPAC definition, despite the fact that they were crucial for the construction of the periodic table. This pivotal chemical notion remains ambiguous and such ambiguity raises problems at the epistemic, logical, and educational levels. These aspects are discussed throughout the book, from different perspectives. This collective book provides an overview of the current state of the debate on the notion of chemical element. Its authors are historians of chemistry, philosophers of chemistry, and chemists with epistemological and educational concerns.
Advanced Quantum Condensed Matter Physics by
Publication Date: 2020-03-26
Condensed matter physics has fast become the largest discipline within physics. Based on an established course, this comprehensive textbook covers one-body, many-body and topological perspectives. It is the first textbook that presents a comprehensive coverage of topological aspects of condensed matter as a distinct yet integrated component. It covers topological fundamentals and their connection to physics, introduces Berry phase and Chern numbers, describes general topological features of band structures and delineates its classification. Applications as manifest in the quantum Hall effect, topological insulators and Weyl semimetal are presented. Modern topics of current interest are explored in-depth, helping students prepare for cutting-edge research. These include one-electron band theory, path integrals and coherent states functional integrals as well as Green and Matsubara functions, spontaneous symmetry breaking, superfluidity and superconductivity. Multiple chapters covering quantum magnetism are also included. With end-of-chapter exercises throughout, it is ideal for graduate students studying advanced condensed matter physics.
The Apocalypse Factory by
Publication Date: 2020-07-28
It began with plutonium, the first element ever manufactured in quantity by humans. Fearing that the Germans would be the first to weaponize the atom, the United States marshaled brilliant minds and seemingly inexhaustible bodies to find a way to create a nuclear chain reaction of inconceivable explosive power. In a matter of months, the Hanford nuclear facility was built to produce and weaponize the enigmatic and deadly new material that would fuel atomic bombs. In the desert of eastern Washington State, far from prying eyes, scientists Glenn Seaborg, Enrico Fermi, and many thousands of others--the physicists, engineers, laborers, and support staff at the facility--manufactured plutonium for the bomb dropped on Nagasaki, and for the bombs in the current American nuclear arsenal, enabling the construction of weapons with the potential to end human civilization.With his characteristic blend of scientific clarity and storytelling, Steve Olson asks why Hanford has been largely overlooked in histories of the Manhattan Project and the Cold War. Olson, who grew up just twenty miles from Hanford's B Reactor, recounts how a small Washington town played host to some of the most influential scientists and engineers in American history as they sought to create the substance at the core of the most destructive weapons ever created. The Apocalypse Factory offers a new generation this dramatic story of human achievement and, ultimately, of lethal hubris.
At the Edge of Time by
Publication Date: 2019-11-05
A new look at the first few seconds after the Big Bang--and how research into these moments continues to revolutionize our understanding of our universe Scientists in the past few decades have made crucial discoveries about how our cosmos evolved over the past 13.8 billion years. But there remains a critical gap in our knowledge: we still know very little about what happened in the first seconds after the Big Bang. At the Edge of Time focuses on what we have recently learned and are still striving to understand about this most essential and mysterious period of time at the beginning of cosmic history. Delving into the remarkable science of cosmology, Dan Hooper describes many of the extraordinary and perplexing questions that scientists are asking about the origin and nature of our world. Hooper examines how we are using the Large Hadron Collider and other experiments to re-create the conditions of the Big Bang and test promising theories for how and why our universe came to contain so much matter and so little antimatter. We may be poised to finally discover how dark matter was formed during our universe's first moments, and, with new telescopes, we are also lifting the veil on the era of cosmic inflation, which led to the creation of our world as we know it. Wrestling with the mysteries surrounding the initial moments that followed the Big Bang, At the Edge of Time presents an accessible investigation of our universe and its origin.
Clinical Imaging Physics by
Publication Date: 2020-04-23
Clinical Medical Imaging Physics: Current and Emerging Practice is the first text of its kind--a comprehensive reference work covering all imaging modalities in use in clinical medicine today. Destined to become a classic in the field, this book provides state-of-practice descriptions for each imaging modality, followed by special sections on new and emerging applications, technologies, and practices. Authored by luminaries in the field of medical physics, this resource is a sophisticated, one-volume handbook to a fast-advancing field that is becoming ever more central to contemporary clinical medicine. Summarizes the current state of clinical medical imaging physics in one volume, with a focus on emerging technologies and applications Provides comprehensive coverage of all key clinical imaging modalities, taking into account the new realities in healthcare practice Features a strong focus on clinical application of principles and technology, now and in the future Contains authoritative text compiled by world-renowned editors and contributors responsible for guiding the development of the field Practicing radiologists and medical physicists will appreciate Clinical Medical Imaging Physics as a peerless everyday reference work. Additionally, graduate students and residents in medical physics and radiology will find this book essential as they study for their board exams.
Cosmology's Century by
Publication Date: 2020-06-02
From Nobel Prize-winning physicist P. J. E. Peebles, the story of cosmology from Einstein to today Modern cosmology began a century ago with Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity and his notion of a homogenous, philosophically satisfying cosmos. Cosmology's Century is the story of how generations of scientists built on these thoughts and many new measurements to arrive at a well-tested physical theory of the structure and evolution of our expanding universe. In this landmark book, one of the world's most esteemed theoretical cosmologists offers an unparalleled personal perspective on how the field developed. P. J. E. Peebles was at the forefront of many of the greatest discoveries of the past century, making fundamental contributions to our understanding of the presence of helium and microwave radiation from the hot big bang, the measures of the distribution and motion of ordinary matter, and the new kind of dark matter that allows us to make sense of these results. Taking readers from the field's beginnings, Peebles describes how scientists working in independent directions found themselves converging on a theory of cosmic evolution interesting enough to warrant the rigorous testing it passes so well. He explores the major advances--some inspired by remarkable insights or perhaps just lucky guesses--as well as the wrong turns taken and the roads not explored. He shares recollections from major players in this story and provides a rare, inside look at how natural science is really done. A monumental work, Cosmology's Century also emphasizes where the present theory is incomplete, suggesting exciting directions for continuing research.
Einstein on Einstein by
Publication Date: 2020-05-12
New perspectives on the iconic physicist's scientific and philosophical formation At the end of World War II, Albert Einstein was invited to write his intellectual autobiography for the Library of Living Philosophers. The resulting book was his uniquely personal Autobiographical Notes, a classic work in the history of science that explains the development of his ideas with unmatched warmth and clarity. Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn introduce Einstein's scientific reflections to today's readers, tracing his intellectual formation from childhood to old age and offering a compelling portrait of the making of a philosopher-scientist. Einstein on Einstein features the full English text of Autobiographical Notes along with incisive essays that place Einstein's reflections in the context of the different stages of his scientific life. Gutfreund and Renn draw on Einstein's writings, personal correspondence, and critical writings by Einstein's contemporaries to provide new perspectives on his greatest discoveries. Also included are Einstein's responses to his critics, which shed additional light on his scientific and philosophical worldview. Gutfreund and Renn quote extensively from Einstein's initial, unpublished attempts to formulate his response, and also look at another brief autobiographical text by Einstein, written a few weeks before his death, which is published here for the first time in English. Complete with evocative drawings by artist Laurent Taudin, Einstein on Einstein illuminates the iconic physicist's journey to general relativity while situating his revolutionary ideas alongside other astonishing scientific breakthroughs of the twentieth century.
Einstein Was Right by
Publication Date: 2020-10-13
An authoritative interdisciplinary account of the historic discovery of gravitational waves In 1915, Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves--ripples in the fabric of spacetime caused by the movement of large masses--as part of the theory of general relativity. A century later, researchers with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) confirmed Einstein's prediction, detecting gravitational waves generated by the collision of two black holes. Shedding new light on the hundred-year history of this momentous achievement, Einstein Was Right brings together essays by two of the physicists who won the Nobel Prize for their instrumental roles in the discovery, along with contributions by leading scholars who offer unparalleled insights into one of the most significant scientific breakthroughs of our time. This illuminating book features an introduction by Tilman Sauer and invaluable firsthand perspectives on the history and significance of the LIGO consortium by physicists Barry Barish and Kip Thorne. Theoretical physicist Alessandra Buonanno discusses the new possibilities opened by gravitational wave astronomy, and sociologist of science Harry Collins and historians of science Diana Kormos Buchwald, Daniel Kennefick, and Jürgen Renn provide further insights into the history of relativity and LIGO. The book closes with a reflection by philosopher Don Howard on the significance of Einstein's theory for the philosophy of science. Edited by Jed Buchwald, Einstein Was Right is a compelling and thought-provoking account of one of the most thrilling scientific discoveries of the modern age.
The Emergence of Spacetime in String Theory by
Publication Date: 2019-06-12
The nature of space and time is one of the most fascinating and fundamental philosophical issues which presently engages at the deepest level with physics. During the last thirty years this notion has been object of an intense critical review in the light of new scientific theories which try to combine the principles of both general relativity and quantum theory--called theories of quantum gravity. This book considers the way string theory shapes its own account of spacetime disappearance from the fundamental level.
How to Find a Higgs Boson—and Other Big Mysteries in the World of the Very Small by
Publication Date: 2020
The history of particle physics, the hunt for the most elusive particle, and the fundamental questions the search has inspired How did physicists combine talent and technology to discover the Higgs boson, the last piece in our inventory of the subatomic world? How did the Higgs change our understanding of the universe? And now, nearly a decade after its detection, what comes next? Answering these questions, Ivo van Vulpen-a CERN particle physicist and member of the team behind the detection-invites us on a journey to the frontiers of our knowledge. Enjoy van Vulpen's accessible explanation of the history of particle physics and of concepts like quantum mechanics and relativity-and ponder his inquiries regarding the search for new particles (to explain dark matter), a new force (to combine the existing fundamental forces), and new phenomena (undiscovered dimensions of space). This is a lively account of work at the world's highest-energy particle accelerator, with inspiring personal reflections on humanity's discoveries deeper and deeper into the world of the very small.
In Search of a Theory of Everything: The Philosophy Behind Physics by
Publication Date: 2020
In Search of a Theory of Everything takes readers on an adventurous journey through space and time on a quest for a unified “theory of everything” by means of a rare and agile interplay between the natural philosophies of influential ancient Greek thinkers and the laws of modern physics. By narrating a history and a philosophy of science, theoretical physicist Demetris Nicolaides logically connects great feats of critical mind and unbridled human imagination in their ambitious quest for the theory that will ultimately explain all the phenomena of nature via a single immutable overarching law. This comparative study of the universe tells the story of physics through philosophy, of the current via the forgotten, in a balanced way. Nicolaides begins each chapter with a relatively easier analysis of nature—one conceived by a major natural philosopher of antiquity—easing readers gradually into the more complex views of modern physics, by intertwining finely the two, the ancient with the new. Those philosophers’ rigorous scientific inquiry of the universe includes ideas that resonate with aspects of modern science, puzzles about nature that still baffle, and clever philosophical arguments that are used today to reassess competing principles of modern physics and speculate about open physics problems. In Search of a Theory of Everything is a new kind of sight, a philosophical insight of modern physics that has long been left unexamined.
Introduction to Quantum Field Theory by
Publication Date: 2019-10-17
Quantum Field Theory provides a theoretical framework for understanding fields and the particles associated with them, and is the basis of particle physics and condensed matter research. This graduate level textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to quantum field theory, giving equal emphasis to operator and path integral formalisms. It covers modern research such as helicity spinors, BCFW construction and generalized unitarity cuts; as well as treating advanced topics including BRST quantization, loop equations, and finite temperature field theory. Various quantum fields are described, including scalar and fermionic fields, Abelian vector fields and Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED), and finally non-Abelian vector fields and Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD). Applications to scattering cross sections in QED and QCD are also described. Each chapter ends with exercises and an important concepts section, allowing students to identify the key aspects of the chapter and test their understanding.
Lightspeed: The Ghostly Aether and the Race to Measure the Speed of Light by
Publication Date: 2019
This book tells the story of one of man's greatest intellectual adventures - how it came to be understood that light travels at a finite speed, so that when we look up at the stars we are looking back in time. From the ancient Greeks measuring the distance to the sun, to today's satellite navigation, the book offers a gripping historical journey.
The Number of the Heavens by
Publication Date: 2019-09-17
One of the most controversial, cutting-edge ideas in cosmology--the possibility that there exist multiple parallel universes--in fact has a long history. Tom Siegfried reminds us that the size and number of the heavens have been contested since ancient times. His story offers deep lessons about the nature of science and the quest for understanding.
Our Changing Views of Photons: A Tutorial Memoir by
Publication Date: 2020
Definitions, and views, of photons have undergone a remarkable change during the last century, continuing today with advances in nanotechnology and lasers. 'Our Changing Views of Photons - A Tutorial Memoir' describes the changing views of the physics community toward photons, and how photons are viewed today in several contexts.
Particle Detectors: Fundamentals and Applications by
Publication Date: 2020
The book describes the fundamentals of particle detectors in their different forms as well as their applications, presenting the abundant material as clearly as possible and as deeply as needed for a thorough understanding. The target group for the book are both, students who want to get an introduction or wish to deepen their knowledge on the subject as well as lecturers and researchers who intend to extent their expertise. The book is also suited as a preparation for instrumental work in nuclear, particle and astroparticle physics and in many other fields (addressed in chapter 2). The detection of elementary particles, nuclei and high-energetic electromagnetic radiation, in this book commonly designated as ‘particles’, proceeds through interactions of the particles with matter. A detector records signals originating from the interactions occurring in or near the detector and (in general) feeds them into an electronic data acquisition system. The book describes the various steps in this process, beginning with the relevant interactions with matter, then proceeding to their exploitation for different detector types like tracking detectors, detectors for particle identification, detectors for energy measurements, detectors in astroparticle experiments, and ending with a discussion of signal processing and data acquisition. Besides the introductory and overview chapters (chapters 1 and 2), the book is divided into five subject areas: – fundamentals (chapters 3 to 5), – detection of tracks of charged particles (chapters 6 to 9), – phenomena and methods mainly applied for particle identification (chapters 10 to 14), – energy measurement (accelerator and non-accelerator experiments) (chapters 15, 16), – electronics and data acquisition (chapters 17 and 18). Comprehensive lists of literature, keywords and abbreviations can be found at the end of the book.
Chromatic Graph Theory by
Publication Date: 2019-11-28
With Chromatic Graph Theory, Second Edition, the authors present various fundamentals of graph theory that lie outside of graph colorings, including basic terminology and results, trees and connectivity, Eulerian and Hamiltonian graphs, matchings and factorizations, and graph embeddings. Readers will see that the authors accomplished the primary goal of this textbook, which is to introduce graph theory with a coloring theme and to look at graph colorings in various ways. The textbook also covers vertex colorings and bounds for the chromatic number, vertex colorings of graphs embedded on surfaces, and a variety of restricted vertex colorings. The authors also describe edge colorings, monochromatic and rainbow edge colorings, complete vertex colorings, several distinguishing vertex and edge colorings. Features of the Second Edition: The book can be used for a first course in graph theory as well as a graduate course The primary topic in the book is graph coloring The book begins with an introduction to graph theory so assumes no previous course The authors are the most widely-published team on graph theory Many new examples and exercises enhance the new edition
Complexity and Randomness in Group Theory by
Publication Date: 2020-06-08
This book shows new directions in group theory motivated by computer science. It reflects the transition from geometric group theory to group theory of the 21st century that has strong connections to computer science. Now that geometric group theory is drifting further and further away from group theory to geometry, it is natural to look for new tools and new directions in group theory which are present.
Data Science for Mathematicians by
Publication Date: 2020-09-15
Mathematicians have skills that, if deepened in the right ways, would enable them to use data to answer questions important to them and others, and report those answers in compelling ways. Data science combines parts of mathematics, statistics, computer science. Gaining such power and the ability to teach has reinvigorated the careers of mathematicians. This handbook will assist mathematicians to better understand the opportunities presented by data science. As it applies to the curriculum, research, and career opportunities, data science is a fast-growing field. Contributors from both academics and industry present their views on these opportunities and how to advantage them.
Direct and Inverse Scattering for the Matrix Schrödinger Equation by
Publication Date: 2020
Authored by two experts in the field who have been long-time collaborators, this monograph treats the scattering and inverse scattering problems for the matrix Schrödinger equation on the half line with the general selfadjoint boundary condition. The existence, uniqueness, construction, and characterization aspects are treated with mathematical rigor, and physical insight is provided to make the material accessible to mathematicians, physicists, engineers, and applied scientists with an interest in scattering and inverse scattering. The material presented is expected to be useful to beginners as well as experts in the field. The subject matter covered is expected to be interesting to a wide range of researchers including those working in quantum graphs and scattering on graphs. The theory presented is illustrated with various explicit examples to improve the understanding of scattering and inverse scattering problems. The monograph introduces a specific class of input data sets consisting of a potential and a boundary condition and a specific class of scattering data sets consisting of a scattering matrix and bound-state information. The important problem of the characterization is solved by establishing a one-to-one correspondence between the two aforementioned classes. The characterization result is formulated in various equivalent forms, providing insight and allowing a comparison of different techniques used to solve the inverse scattering problem. The past literature treated the type of boundary condition as a part of the scattering data used as input to recover the potential. This monograph provides a proper formulation of the inverse scattering problem where the type of boundary condition is no longer a part of the scattering data set, but rather both the potential and the type of boundary condition are recovered from the scattering data set.
Fast track to forcing by
Publication Date: 2021
This quick yet detailed introduction to set theory and forcing builds the reader's intuition about it as much as the mathematical detail. Intuition, rather absent from the existing literature on the subject, here plays a large role. The reader will not only learn the facts, but will understand why they are true and will be brought to ask: what else could be true? Having presented forcing in Part I, the second part of the book discusses contemporary issues in the theory of forcing. It includes known and some previously unpublished results as well as many open questions. This is ideal for those who want to start a research career in forcing but do not have a personal interlocutor. Obviously, not everything about forcing is in this book. Many references are included to help the reader further explore the vast amount of research literature available on the subject.
Functional Analysis and Summability by
Publication Date: 2020-09-07
There are excellent books on both functional analysis and summability. Most of them are very terse. In Functional Analysis and Summability, the author makes a sincere attempt for a gentle introduction of these topics to students. In the functional analysis component of the book, the Hahn-Banach theorem, Banach-Steinhaus theorem (or uniform boundedness principle), the open mapping theorem, the closed graph theorem, and the Riesz representation theorem are highlighted. In the summability component of the book, the Silverman-Toeplitz theorem, Schur's theorem, the Steinhaus theorem, and the Steinhaus-type theorems are proved. The utility of functional analytic tools like the uniform boundedness principle to prove some results in summability theory is also pointed out. Features A gentle introduction of the topics to the students is attempted. Basic results of functional analysis and summability theory and their applications are highlighted. Many examples are provided in the text. Each chapter ends with useful exercises. This book will be useful to postgraduate students, pre-research level students, and research scholars in mathematics. Students of physics and engineering will also find this book useful since topics in the book also have applications in related areas.
Geometric Regular Polytopes by
Publication Date: 2020-02-20
Regular polytopes and their symmetry have a long history stretching back two and a half millennia, to the classical regular polygons and polyhedra. Much of modern research focuses on abstract regular polytopes, but significant recent developments have been made on the geometric side, including the exploration of new topics such as realizations and rigidity, which offer a different way of understanding the geometric and combinatorial symmetry of polytopes. This is the first comprehensive account of the modern geometric theory, and includes a wide range of applications, along with new techniques. While the author explores the subject in depth, his elementary approach to traditional areas such as finite reflexion groups makes this book suitable for beginning graduate students as well as more experienced researchers.
An Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics by
Publication Date: 2020-09-28
An Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics presents techniques for statistical analysis in the absence of strong assumptions about the distributions generating the data. Rank-based and resampling techniques are heavily represented, but robust techniques are considered as well. These techniques include one-sample testing and estimation, multi-sample testing and estimation, and regression. Attention is paid to the intellectual development of the field, with a thorough review of bibliographical references. Computational tools, in R and SAS, are developed and illustrated via examples. Exercises designed to reinforce examples are included. Features Rank-based techniques including sign, Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests are presented Tests are inverted to produce estimates and confidence intervals Multivariate tests are explored Techniques reflecting the dependence of a response variable on explanatory variables are presented Density estimation is explored The bootstrap and jackknife are discussed This text is intended for a graduate student in applied statistics. The course is best taken after an introductory course in statistical methodology, elementary probability, and regression. Mathematical prerequisites include calculus through multivariate differentiation and integration, and, ideally, a course in matrix algebra.
The Next Step by
Publication Date: 2019-10-24
This book is written on the behalf of mathematics teachers who have been asked to teach more conceptually while simultaneously motivating more students of all ability levels to willingly embrace further upper level mathematics content and courses. This is a BIG ASK Math teachers are being expected to overhaul their current teaching approach. Can teachers be expected to embrace this crusade alone, isolated in a classroom? Principals are charged with leading the way. They must provide the opportunities and resources necessary for effective teacher collaboration. After reading this book, a principal will comprehend the enormity of task each mathematics teachers faces and learn what must be done to help. School leaders will be able to design a growth plan based on a plethora of collaborative approaches. Mathematics teachers will experience the assistance they have desperately needed.
Number Theory Revealed by
Publication Date: 2019
Number Theory Revealed: A Masterclass acquaints enthusiastic students with the "Queen of Mathematics". The text offers a fresh take on congruences, power residues, quadratic residues, primes, and Diophantine equations and presents hot topics like cryptography, factoring, and primality testing. Students are also introduced to beautiful enlightening questions like the structure of Pascal's triangle mod p and modern twists on traditional questions like the values represented by binary quadratic forms, the anatomy of integers, and elliptic curves. This Masterclass edition contains many additional chapters and appendices not found in Number Theory Revealed: An Introduction, highlighting beautiful developments and inspiring other subjects in mathematics (like algebra). This allows instructors to tailor a course suited to their own (and their students') interests. There are new yet accessible topics like the curvature of circles in a tiling of a circle by circles, the latest discoveries on gaps between primes, a new proof of Mordell's Theorem for congruent elliptic curves, and a discussion of the abc-conjecture including its proof for polynomials. About the Author: Andrew Granville is the Canada Research Chair in Number Theory at the University of Montreal and professor of mathematics at University College London. He has won several international writing prizes for exposition in mathematics, including the 2008 Chauvenet Prize and the 2019 Halmos-Ford Prize, and is the author of Prime Suspects (Princeton University Press, 2019), a beautifully illustrated graphic novel murder mystery that explores surprising connections between the anatomies of integers and of permutations.
Number Theory: a Very Short Introduction by
Publication Date: 2020-08-01
Number theory is the branch of mathematics that is primarily concerned with the counting numbers. Of particular importance are the prime numbers, the "building blocks" of our number system. The subject is an old one, dating back over two millennia to the ancient Greeks, and for many years hasbeen studied for its intrinsic beauty and elegance, not least because several of its challenges are so easy to state that everyone can understand them, and yet no-one has ever been able to resolve them.But number theory has also recently become of great practical importance - in the area of cryptography, where the security of your credit card, and indeed of the nation's defence, depends on a result concerning prime numbers that dates back to the 18th century. Recent years have witnessed otherspectacular developments, such as Andrew Wiles's proof of "Fermat's last theorem" (unproved for over 250 years) and some exciting work on prime numbers. In this Very Short Introduction Robin Wilson introduces the main areas of classical number theory, both ancient and modern. Drawing on the work ofmany of the greatest mathematicians of the past, such as Euclid, Fermat, Euler, and Gauss, he situates some of the most interesting and creative problems in the area in their historical context.ABOUT THE SERIES:The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to makeinteresting and challenging topics highly readable.
Operator-Adapted Wavelets, Fast Solvers, and Numerical Homogenization by
Publication Date: 2019-10-10
Although numerical approximation and statistical inference are traditionally covered as entirely separate subjects, they are intimately connected through the common purpose of making estimations with partial information. This book explores these connections from a game and decision theoretic perspective, showing how they constitute a pathway to developing simple and general methods for solving fundamental problems in both areas. It illustrates these interplays by addressing problems related to numerical homogenization, operator adapted wavelets, fast solvers, and Gaussian processes. This perspective reveals much of their essential anatomy and greatly facilitates advances in these areas, thereby appearing to establish a general principle for guiding the process of scientific discovery. This book is designed for graduate students, researchers, and engineers in mathematics, applied mathematics, and computer science, and particularly researchers interested in drawing on and developing this interface between approximation, inference, and learning.
Potential Theory and Geometry on Lie Groups by
Publication Date: 2020-10-23
This book provides a complete and reasonably self-contained account of a new classification of connected Lie groups into two classes. The first part describes the use of tools from potential theory to establish the classification and to show that the analytic and algebraic approaches to the classification are equivalent. Part II covers geometric theory of the same classification and a proof that it is equivalent to the algebraic approach. Part III is a new approach to the geometric classification that requires more advanced geometric technology, namely homotopy, homology and the theory of currents. Using these methods, a more direct, but also more sophisticated, approach to the equivalence of the geometric and algebraic classification is made. Background material is introduced gradually to familiarise readers with ideas from areas such as Lie groups, differential topology and probability, in particular, random walks on groups. Numerous open problems inspire students to explore further.
Processing Networks by
Publication Date: 2020-10-15
This state-of-the-art account unifies material developed in journal articles over the last 35 years, with two central thrusts: It describes a broad class of system models that the authors call 'stochastic processing networks' (SPNs), which include queueing networks and bandwidth sharing networks as prominent special cases; and in that context it explains and illustrates a method for stability analysis based on fluid models. The central mathematical result is a theorem that can be paraphrased as follows: If the fluid model derived from an SPN is stable, then the SPN itself is stable. Two topics discussed in detail are (a) the derivation of fluid models by means of fluid limit analysis, and (b) stability analysis for fluid models using Lyapunov functions. With regard to applications, there are chapters devoted to max-weight and back-pressure control, proportionally fair resource allocation, data center operations, and flow management in packet networks. Geared toward researchers and graduate students in engineering and applied mathematics, especially in electrical engineering and computer science, this compact text gives readers full command of the methods.
Pythagoras' Legacy: Mathematics in Ten Great Ideas by
Publication Date: 2020
The history of mathematics starts in earnest with one of Pythagoras’ most important proofs, the Pythagorean theorem. This proof was the first link in a chain of ground-breaking ideas, all interconnected with each other, that turned mathematics into an “art of the mind.” The chain continues to be extended today. There would be no computers, science, engineering, or philosophy without Pythagoras’ legacy. This book sketches an outline of that legacy by presenting and discussing ten of the greatest ideas in the mathematical chain. Its aim is to illustrate why mathematics can be designated an intellectual art, a creative enterprise that mirrors any art, from music to painting. Pythagoras actually connected music and mathematics into a theory of the world called the Harmony of the Spheres. The book is intended for a general audience, and especially those who may think that mathematics is uninteresting or boring. Each of its ten chapter ends with five exploratory puzzles that will allow readers to become engaged in some of the ideas treated in the chapter without any technical knowledge. This will allow readers to use this book as well as a collection of fairly easy math problems.
Representations of Solvable Lie Groups by
Publication Date: 2020-04-14
The theory of unitary group representations began with finite groups, and blossomed in the twentieth century both as a natural abstraction of classical harmonic analysis, and as a tool for understanding various physical phenomena. Combining basic theory and new results, this monograph is a fresh and self-contained exposition of group representations and harmonic analysis on solvable Lie groups. Covering a range of topics from stratification methods for linear solvable actions in a finite-dimensional vector space, to complete proofs of essential elements of Mackey theory and a unified development of the main features of the orbit method for solvable Lie groups, the authors provide both well-known and new examples, with a focus on those relevant to contemporary applications. Clear explanations of the basic theory make this an invaluable reference guide for graduate students as well as researchers.
Statistical Inference Via Convex Optimization by
Publication Date: 2020-04-07
This authoritative book draws on the latest research to explore the interplay of high-dimensional statistics with optimization. Through an accessible analysis of fundamental problems of hypothesis testing and signal recovery, Anatoli Juditsky and Arkadi Nemirovski show how convex optimization theory can be used to devise and analyze near-optimal statistical inferences. Statistical Inference via Convex Optimization is an essential resource for optimization specialists who are new to statistics and its applications, and for data scientists who want to improve their optimization methods. Juditsky and Nemirovski provide the first systematic treatment of the statistical techniques that have arisen from advances in the theory of optimization. They focus on four well-known statistical problems--sparse recovery, hypothesis testing, and recovery from indirect observations of both signals and functions of signals--demonstrating how they can be solved more efficiently as convex optimization problems. The emphasis throughout is on achieving the best possible statistical performance. The construction of inference routines and the quantification of their statistical performance are given by efficient computation rather than by analytical derivation typical of more conventional statistical approaches. In addition to being computation-friendly, the methods described in this book enable practitioners to handle numerous situations too difficult for closed analytical form analysis, such as composite hypothesis testing and signal recovery in inverse problems. Statistical Inference via Convex Optimization features exercises with solutions along with extensive appendixes, making it ideal for use as a graduate text.
Statistical Programing in SAS Second Edition by
Publication Date: 2019-12-19
Statistical Programming in SAS Second Editionprovides a foundation for programming to implement statistical solutions using SAS, a system that has been used to solve data analytic problems for more than 40 years. The author includes motivating examples to inspire readers to generate programming solutions. Upper-level undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and professionals involved in generating programming solutions for data-analytic problems will benefit from this book. The ideal background for a reader is some background in regression modeling and introductory experience with computer programming. The coverage of statistical programming in the second edition includes Getting data into the SAS system, engineering new features, and formatting variables Writing readable and well-documented code Structuring, implementing, and debugging programs that are well documented Creating solutions to novel problems Combining data sources, extracting parts of data sets, and reshaping data sets as needed for other analyses Generating general solutions using macros Customizing output Producing insight-inspiring data visualizations Parsing, processing, and analyzing text Programming solutions using matrices and connecting to R Processing text Programming with matrices Connecting SAS with R Covering topics that are part of both base and certification exams.
Stochastic Modelling of Reaction-Diffusion Processes by
Publication Date: 2020-01-30
This practical introduction to stochastic reaction-diffusion modelling is based on courses taught at the University of Oxford. The authors discuss the essence of mathematical methods which appear (under different names) in a number of interdisciplinary scientific fields bridging mathematics and computations with biology and chemistry. The book can be used both for self-study and as a supporting text for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate-level courses in applied mathematics. New mathematical approaches are explained using simple examples of biological models, which range in size from simulations of small biomolecules to groups of animals. The book starts with stochastic modelling of chemical reactions, introducing stochastic simulation algorithms and mathematical methods for analysis of stochastic models. Different stochastic spatio-temporal models are then studied, including models of diffusion and stochastic reaction-diffusion modelling. The methods covered include molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, velocity jump processes and compartment-based (lattice-based) models.
Publication Date: 2020-09-01
Archaeologists decoding ancient messages. Epidemiologists analyzing the spread of a contagious disease. African Americans seeking full enfranchisement in a society that has worked to exclude them. A family doing puzzles at the kitchen table. These scenarios seem to have little in common. But in fact, each of these groups is faced with a multifaceted challenge--and each is using math to solve it. In Supermath, popular author and educator Anna Weltman showcases the incredible power of mathematics when people apply it outside of the world of pure numbers, introducing it into the realms of science, politics, history, education, and art. Her stories share how math has protected us from war and disease, helped us communicate across time and space, and made the world a fairer and more beautiful place. But Weltman also warns us that dangers arise when the transformative might of numbers goes unchecked. Mathematics has been used to mistranslate records, silence indigenous communities, create gerrymandered voting districts, close the gates of higher education. Sometimes, math can blind those who wield it to its limitations, causing those who would deploy it to solve problems to instead create more. Drawing on history and current events, Weltman tackles five fascinating questions: Is math the universal language? Can math eliminate bias? Can math predict the next move? Can math open doors? And finally, What is genuine beauty? Supermath is an enlightening book that pursues complex lines of mathematical thought while providing a fascinating lens into global problems and human culture as a whole.
Topology: a Very Short Introduction by
Publication Date: 2020-02-01
Topology, the mathematical study of the properties that are preserved through the deformations, twistings, and stretchings of objects, is an important area of modern mathematics. As broad and fundamental as algebra and geometry, its study has important implications for science more generally,especially physics. Most people will have encountered topology, even if they're not aware of it, through Mobius strips, and knot problems such as the trefoil knot.In this Very Short Introduction Richard Earl gives a sense of the more visual elements of topology (looking at surfaces) as well as covering the formal definition of continuity. Considering some of the eye-opening examples that led mathematicians to recognize a need for studying topology, he payshomage to the historical people, problems, and surprises that have propelled the growth of this field.ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, andenthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Trigonometry: a Very Short Introduction by
Publication Date: 2020-03-02
Born of the desire to understand the workings of motions of the heavenly bodies, trigonometry gave the ancient Greeks the ability to predict their futures. Most of what we see of the subject in school comes from these heavenly origins; 15th century astronomer Regiomontanus called it "the footof the ladder to the stars".In this Very Short Introduction Glen Van Brummelen shows how trigonometry connects mathematics to science, and has today become an indispensable tool in predicting cyclic patterns like animal populations and ocean tides. Its historical journey through major cultures such as medieval India and theIslamic World has taken it through disciplines such as geography and even religious practice. Trigonometry has also been a major player in the most startling mathematical developments of the modern world. Its interactions with the concept of infinity led to Taylor and Fourier series, some of themost practical tools of modern science. The birth of complex numbers led to a shocking union of exponential and trigonometric functions, creating the most beautiful formulas and powerful modelling tools in science. Finally, as Van Brummelen shows, trigonometry allows us to explore the strange newworlds of non-Euclidean geometries, opening up bizarre possibilities for the shape of space itself. And indeed, one of those new geometries - spherical - takes us full circle back to ancient Greek astronomers and European navigators, who first used it to chart their ways across the heavens and theearth.ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, andenthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Viscoelastic Waves and Rays in Layered Media by
Publication Date: 2020-10-17
This second edition extends the rigorous, self-contained exposition of the theory for viscoelastic wave propagation in layered media to include head waves and general ray theory. The theory, not published elsewhere, provides solutions for fundamental wave-propagation and ray-theory problems valid for any media with a linear response, elastic or anelastic. It explains measurable variations in wave speed, particle motion, and attenuation of body waves, surface waves, and head waves induced at anelastic material boundaries that do not occur for elastic waves. This book may be used as a textbook for advanced university courses and as a research reference in seismology, exploration geophysics, engineering, solid mechanics, and acoustics. It provides computation steps for ray-tracing computer algorithms to develop a variety of tomography inferred anelastic models, such as those for the Earth's deep interior and petroleum reserves. Numerical results and problem sets emphasize important aspects of the theory for each chapter.
What Is a Complex System? by
Publication Date: 2020
A clear, concise introduction to the quickly growing field of complexity science that explains its conceptual and mathematical foundations What is a complex system? Although "complexity science" is used to understand phenomena as diverse as the behavior of honeybees, the economic markets, the human brain, and the climate, there is no agreement about its foundations. In this introduction for students, academics, and general readers, philosopher of science James Ladyman and physicist Karoline Wiesner develop an account of complexity that brings the different concepts and mathematical measures applied to complex systems into a single framework. They introduce the different features of complex systems, discuss different conceptions of complexity, and develop their own account. They explain why complexity science is so important in today's world.
Publication Date: 2020
An accessible introduction to algorithms, explaining not just what they are but how they work, with examples from a wide range of application areas.Digital technology runs on algorithms, sets of instructions that describe how to do something efficiently. Application areas range from search engines to tournament scheduling, DNA sequencing, and machine learning. Arguing that every educated person today needs to have some understanding of algorithms and what they do, in this volume in the MIT Press Essential Knowledge series, Panos Louridas offers an introduction to algorithms that is accessible to the nonspecialist reader. Louridas explains not just what algorithms are but also how they work, offering a wide range of examples and keeping mathematics to a minimum.After discussing what an algorithm does and how its effectiveness can be measured, Louridas covers three of the most fundamental applications areas: graphs, which describe networks, from eighteenth-century problems to today's social networks; searching, and how to find the fastest way to search; and sorting, and the importance of choosing the best algorithm for particular tasks. He then presents larger-scale applications: PageRank, Google's founding algorithm; and neural networks and deep learning. Finally, Louridas describes how all algorithms are nothing more than simple moves with pen and paper, and how from such a humble foundation rise all their spectacular achievements.
Anyone Can Code by
Publication Date: 2020-11-26
Artificial Intelligence and Robotics by
Publication Date: 2020-09-08
In Artificial Intelligence and Robotics: Ten Short Lessons, leading expert Peter J. Bentley breaks down the fast-moving world of computers into ten pivotal lessons, presenting the reader with the essential information they need to get to understand our most powerful technology and its remarkable implications for our species. From the origins and motivation behind the birth of AI and robotics to using smart algorithms that allow us to build good robots, from the technologies that enable computers to understand a huge range of sensory information, including language and communication, to the challenges of emotional intelligence, unpredictable environments, and imagination in artificial intelligence, this is a cutting-edge, expert-led guide for curious minds. Packed full of easy-to-understand diagrams, pictures, and fact boxes, these ten lessons cover all the basics, as well as the latest understanding and developments, to enlighten the nonscientist. About the series: The Pocket Einstein series is a collection of essential pocket-sized guides for anyone looking to understand a little more about some of the most important and fascinating areas of science in the twenty-first century. Broken down into ten simple lessons and written by leading experts in their field, the books reveal the ten most important takeaways from those areas of science you've always wanted to know more about.
Artificial Intelligence and the Environmental Crisis by
Publication Date: 2019-12-13
A radical and challenging book which argues that artificial intelligence needs a completely different set of foundations, based on ecological intelligence rather than human intelligence, if it is to deliver on the promise of a better world. This can usher in the greatest transformation in human history, an age of re-integration. Our very existence is dependent upon our context within the Earth System, and so, surely, artificial intelligence must also be grounded within this context, embracing emergence, interconnectedness and real-time feedback. We discover many positive outcomes across the societal, economic and environmental arenas and discuss how this transformation can be delivered. Key Features: Identifies a key weakness in current AI thinking, that threatens any hope of a better world. Highlights the importance of realizing that systems theory is an essential foundation for any technology that hopes to positively transform our world. Emphasizes the need for a radical new approach to AI, based on ecological systems. Explains why ecosystem intelligence, not human intelligence, offers the best framework for AI. Examines how this new approach will impact on the three arenas of society, environment and economics, ushering in a new age of re-integration.
Automating Vision by
Publication Date: 2020-05-19
Automating Vision explores the rise of seeing machines through four case studies: facial recognition, drone vision, mobile and locative media and driverless cars. Proposing a conceptual lens of camera consciousness, which is drawn from the early visual anthropology of Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead, Automating Vision accounts for the growing power and value of camera technologies and digital image processing. Behind the smart camera devices examined throughout the book lies a set of increasingly integrated and automated technologies underpinned by artificial intelligence, machine learning and image processing. Seeing machines are now implicated in growing visual data markets and are supported by emerging layers of infrastructure that they coproduce. In this book, Anthony McCosker and Rowan Wilken address the social impacts, the disruptions and reconfigurations to existing digital media ecosystems, to urban environments and to mobility and social relations that result from the increasing automation of vision and explore how it might be possible to ensure a safe and equitable future as we learn to see with and negotiate the interventions of seeing machines. This book will appeal to students and scholars in media, communication, cultural studies, sociology of media and science and technology studies.
Blockchain and Web 3. 0 by
Publication Date: 2019-07-09
Blockchain is no longer just about bitcoin or cryptocurrencies in general. Instead, it can be seen as a disruptive, revolutionary technology which will have major impacts on multiple aspects of our lives. The revolutionary power of such technology compares with the revolution sparked by the World Wide Web and the Internet in general. Just as the Internet is a means of sharing information, so blockchain technologies can be seen as a way to introduce the next level: sharing value. Blockchain and Web 3.0 fills the gap in our understanding of blockchain technologies by hosting a discussion of the new technologies in a variety of disciplinary settings. Indeed, this volume explains how such technologies are disruptive and comparatively examines the social, economic, technological and legal consequences of these disruptions. Such a comparative perspective has previously been underemphasized in the debate about blockchain, which has subsequently led to weaknesses in our understanding of decentralized technologies. Underlining the risks and opportunities offered by the advent of blockchain technologies and the rise of Web 3.0, Blockchain and Web 3.0 will appeal to researchers and academics interested in fields such as sociology and social policy, cyberculture, new media and privacy and data protection.
Blockchain in Data Analytics by
Publication Date: 2020
Blockchain technology facilitates a decentralized database where business is rendered transparent without the involvement of middlemen. The first use of this technology was its application in digital currency (bitcoin). However, other potential uses of blockchain are yet to be explored. It is expected to have a major impact on cyber security, the internet of things, supply chain management, market prediction, governance, information management, and financial transactions, among others. Blockchain has redesigned the way in which people deal with their money due to its effectiveness, especially in terms of security. Therefore, from the data analytics point of view, investigation of the application of blockchain technology in a wide range of domains is crucial. In this context, this book provides a broad picture of the concepts, techniques, applications, and open research directions in this area, and will serve as a single source of reference for acquiring knowledge on this emerging technology.
Compressed Sensing in Radar Signal Processing by
Publication Date: 2019-10-17
Learn about the most recent theoretical and practical advances in radar signal processing using tools and techniques from compressive sensing. Providing a broad perspective that fully demonstrates the impact of these tools, the accessible and tutorial-like chapters cover topics such as clutter rejection, CFAR detection, adaptive beamforming, random arrays for radar, space-time adaptive processing, and MIMO radar. Each chapter includes coverage of theoretical principles, a detailed review of current knowledge, and discussion of key applications, and also highlights the potential benefits of using compressed sensing algorithms. A unified notation and numerous cross-references between chapters make it easy to explore different topics side by side. Written by leading experts from both academia and industry, this is the ideal text for researchers, graduate students and industry professionals working in signal processing and radar.
Computer Organisation and Architecture by
Publication Date: 2020-09-30
Computer organization and architecture is becoming an increasingly important core subject in the areas of computer science and its applications, and information technology constantly steers the relentless revolution going on in this discipline. This textbook demystifies the state of the art using a simple and step-by-step development from traditional fundamentals to the most advanced concepts entwined with this subject, maintaining a reasonable balance among various theoretical principles, numerous design approaches, and their actual practical implementations. Being driven by the diversified knowledge gained directly from working in the constantly changing environment of the information technology (IT) industry, the author sets the stage by describing the modern issues in different areas of this subject. He then continues to effectively provide a comprehensive source of material with exciting new developments using a wealth of concrete examples related to recent regulatory changes in the modern design and architecture of different categories of computer systems associated with real-life instances as case studies, ranging from micro to mini, supermini, mainframes, cluster architectures, massively parallel processing (MPP) systems, and even supercomputers with commodity processors. Many of the topics that are briefly discussed in this book to conserve space for new materials are elaborately described from the design perspective to their ultimate practical implementations with representative schematic diagrams available on the book's website. Key Features Microprocessor evolutions and their chronological improvements with illustrations taken from Intel, Motorola, and other leading families Multicore concept and subsequent multicore processors, a new standard in processor design Cluster architecture, a vibrant organizational and architectural development in building up massively distributed/parallel systems InfiniBand, a high-speed link for use in cluster system architecture providing a single-system image FireWire, a high-speed serial bus used for both isochronous real-time data transfer and asynchronous applications, especially needed in multimedia and mobile phones Evolution of embedded systems and their specific characteristics Real-time systems and their major design issues in brief Improved main memory technologies with their recent releases of DDR2, DDR3, Rambus DRAM, and Cache DRAM, widely used in all types of modern systems, including large clusters and high-end servers DVD optical disks and flash drives (pen drives) RAID, a common approach to configuring multiple-disk arrangements used in large server-based systems A good number of problems along with their solutions on different topics after their delivery Exhaustive material with respective figures related to the entire text to illustrate many of the computer design, organization, and architecture issues with examples are available online at http://crcpress.com/9780367255732 This book serves as a textbook for graduate-level courses for computer science engineering, information technology, electrical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, BCA, MCA, and other similar courses.
Publication Date: 2020-05-19
A nuts-and-bolts explanation of cryptography from a leading expert in information security. Despite its reputation as a language only of spies and hackers, cryptography plays a critical role in our everyday lives. Though often invisible, it underpins the security of our mobile phone calls, credit card payments, web searches, internet messaging, and cryptocurrencies--in short, everything we do online. Increasingly, it also runs in the background of our smart refrigerators, thermostats, electronic car keys, and even the cars themselves. As our daily devices get smarter, cyberspace--home to all the networks that connect them--grows. Broadly defined as a set of tools for establishing security in this expanding cyberspace, cryptography enables us to protect and share our information. Understanding the basics of cryptography is the key to recognizing the significance of the security technologies we encounter every day, which will then help us respond to them. What are the implications of connecting to an unprotected Wi-Fi network? Is it really so important to have different passwords for different accounts? Is it safe to submit sensitive personal information to a given app, or to convert money to bitcoin? In clear, concise writing, information security expert Keith Martin answers all these questions and more, revealing the many crucial ways we all depend on cryptographic technology. He demystifies its controversial applications and the nuances behind alarming headlines about data breaches at banks, credit bureaus, and online retailers. We learn, for example, how cryptography can hamper criminal investigations and obstruct national security efforts, and how increasingly frequent ransomware attacks put personal information at risk. Yet we also learn why responding to these threats by restricting the use of cryptography can itself be problematic. Essential reading for anyone with a password, Cryptography offers a profound perspective on personal security, online and off.
Cybersecurity Analytics by
Publication Date: 2019-11-25
Cybersecurity Analytics is for the cybersecurity student and professional who wants to learn data science techniques critical for tackling cybersecurity challenges, and for the data science student and professional who wants to learn about cybersecurity adaptations. Trying to build a malware detector, a phishing email detector, or just interested in finding patterns in your datasets? This book can let you do it on your own. Numerous examples and datasets links are included so that the reader can "learn by doing." Anyone with a basic college-level calculus course and some probability knowledge can easily understand most of the material. The book includes chapters containing: unsupervised learning, semi-supervised learning, supervised learning, text mining, natural language processing, and more. It also includes background on security, statistics, and linear algebra. The website for the book contains a listing of datasets, updates, and other resources for serious practitioners.
Data Stewardship by
Publication Date: 2020-10-31
Data stewards in any organization are the backbone of a successful data governance implementation because they do the work to make data trusted, dependable, and high quality. Since the publication of the first edition, there have been critical new developments in the field, such as integrating Data Stewardship into project management, handling Data Stewardship in large international companies, handling "big data" and Data Lakes, and a pivot in the overall thinking around the best way to align data stewardship to the data--moving from business/organizational function to data domain. Furthermore, the role of process in data stewardship is now recognized as key and needed to be covered. Data Stewardship, Second Edition provides clear and concise practical advice on implementing and running data stewardship, including guidelines on how to organize based on organizational/company structure, business functions, and data ownership. The book shows data managers how to gain support for a stewardship effort, maintain that support over the long-term, and measure the success of the data stewardship effort. It includes detailed lists of responsibilities for each type of data steward and strategies to help the Data Governance Program Office work effectively with the data stewards. Includes an enhanced section on data governance/stewardship structure for companies that do business internationally, including the structure of business terms to account for country differences Outlines the advantages and disadvantages of "data domains," details on suggested data domains and data domain structures, as well as data governance by data domains Integrates data governance into Project methodology, defining roles on a project, adding Data Governance tasks to the Work Breakdown Structure, as well as advantages of working closely with the Project management Office Covers the data stewardship involved in implementing national and international data privacy regulations
Data-Driven Science and Engineering by
Publication Date: 2019-02-28
Data-driven discovery is revolutionizing the modeling, prediction, and control of complex systems. This textbook brings together machine learning, engineering mathematics, and mathematical physics to integrate modeling and control of dynamical systems with modern methods in data science. It highlights many of the recent advances in scientific computing that enable data-driven methods to be applied to a diverse range of complex systems, such as turbulence, the brain, climate, epidemiology, finance, robotics, and autonomy. Aimed at advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in the engineering and physical sciences, the text presents a range of topics and methods from introductory to state of the art.
Embodied Computing by
Publication Date: 2020-04-10
Practitioners and scholars explore ethical, social, and conceptual issues arising in relation to such devices as fitness monitors, neural implants, and a toe-controlled computer mouse. Body-centered computing now goes beyond the "wearable" to encompass implants, bionic technology, and ingestible sensors--technologies that point to hybrid bodies and blurred boundaries between human, computer, and artificial intelligence platforms. Such technologies promise to reconfigure the relationship between bodies and their environment, enabling new kinds of physiological interfacing, embodiment, and productivity. Using the term embodied computing to describe these devices, this book offers essays by practitioners and scholars from a variety of disciplines that explore the accompanying ethical, social, and conceptual issues. The contributors examine technologies that range from fitness monitors to neural implants to a toe-controlled mouse. They discuss topics that include the policy implications of ingestibles; the invasive potential of body area networks, which transmit data from bodily devices to the internet; cyborg experiments, linking a human brain directly to a computer; the evolution of the ankle monitor and other intrusive electronic monitoring devices; fashiontech, which offers users an aura of "cool" in exchange for their data; and the "final frontier" of technosupremacism: technologies that seek to read our minds. Taken together, the essays show the importance of considering embodied technologies in their social and political contexts rather than in isolated subjectivity or in purely quantitative terms. Contributors Roba Abbas, Andrew Iliadis, Gary Genosko, Suneel Jethani, Deborah Lupton, Katina Michael, M. G. Michael, Marcel O'Gorman, Maggie Orth, Isabel Pedersen, Christine Perakslis, Kevin Warwick, Elizabeth Wissinger
Publication Date: 2020-03-17
The world of fiber optic connections reaching neighborhoods, homes, and businesses will represent as great a change from what came before as the advent of electricity. The virtually unlimited amounts of data we'll be able to send and receive through fiber optic connections will enable a degree of virtual presence that will radically transform health care, education, urban administration and services, agriculture, retail sales, and offices. Yet all of those transformations will pale compared with the innovations and new industries that we can't even imagine today. In a fascinating account combining policy expertise and compelling on-the-ground reporting, Susan Crawford reveals how the giant corporations that control cable and internet access in the United States use their tremendous lobbying power to tilt the playing field against competition, holding back the infrastructure improvements necessary for the country to move forward. And she shows how a few cities and towns are fighting monopoly power to bring the next technological revolution to their communities.
Foundations of Data Science by
Publication Date: 2020-01-23
This book provides an introduction to the mathematical and algorithmic foundations of data science, including machine learning, high-dimensional geometry, and analysis of large networks. Topics include the counterintuitive nature of data in high dimensions, important linear algebraic techniques such as singular value decomposition, the theory of random walks and Markov chains, the fundamentals of and important algorithms for machine learning, algorithms and analysis for clustering, probabilistic models for large networks, representation learning including topic modelling and non-negative matrix factorization, wavelets and compressed sensing. Important probabilistic techniques are developed including the law of large numbers, tail inequalities, analysis of random projections, generalization guarantees in machine learning, and moment methods for analysis of phase transitions in large random graphs. Additionally, important structural and complexity measures are discussed such as matrix norms and VC-dimension. This book is suitable for both undergraduate and graduate courses in the design and analysis of algorithms for data.
Fundamentals of Machine Learning by
Publication Date: 2019
Machine learning is exploding, both in research and for industrial applications. This book aims to be a brief introduction to this area given the importance of this topic in many disciplines, from sciences to engineering, and even for its broader impact on our society. This book tries to contribute with a style that keeps a balance between brevity of explanations, the rigor of mathematical arguments, and outlining principle ideas. At the same time, this book tries to give some comprehensive overview of a variety of methods to see their relation on specialization within this area. This includes some introduction to Bayesian approaches to modeling as well as deep learning. Writing small programs to apply machine learning techniques is made easy today by the availability of high-level programming systems. This book offers examples in Python with the machine learning libraries sklearn and Keras. The first four chapters concentrate largely on the practical side of applying machine learning techniques. The book then discusses more fundamental concepts and includes their formulation in a probabilistic context. This is followed by chapters on advanced models, that of recurrent neural networks and that of reinforcement learning. The book closes with a brief discussion on the impact of machine learning and AI on our society.
Hacking Multifactor Authentication by
Publication Date: 2020-09-23
Protect your organization from scandalously easy-to-hack MFA security "solutions" Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) is spreading like wildfire across digital environments. However, hundreds of millions of dollars have been stolen from MFA-protected online accounts. How? Most people who use multifactor authentication (MFA) have been told that it is far less hackable than other types of authentication, or even that it is unhackable. You might be shocked to learn that all MFA solutions are actually easy to hack. That's right: there is no perfectly safe MFA solution. In fact, most can be hacked at least five different ways. Hacking Multifactor Authentication will show you how MFA works behind the scenes and how poorly linked multi-step authentication steps allows MFA to be hacked and compromised. This book covers over two dozen ways that various MFA solutions can be hacked, including the methods (and defenses) common to all MFA solutions. You'll learn about the various types of MFA solutions, their strengthens and weaknesses, and how to pick the best, most defensible MFA solution for your (or your customers') needs. Finally, this book reveals a simple method for quickly evaluating your existing MFA solutions. If using or developing a secure MFA solution is important to you, you need this book. Learn how different types of multifactor authentication work behind the scenes See how easy it is to hack MFA security solutions--no matter how secure they seem Identify the strengths and weaknesses in your (or your customers') existing MFA security and how to mitigate Author Roger Grimes is an internationally known security expert whose work on hacking MFA has generated significant buzz in the security world. Read this book to learn what decisions and preparations your organization needs to take to prevent losses from MFA hacking.
Hands-On Machine Learning with Scikit-Learn, Keras, and TensorFlow: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques to Build Intelligent Systems by
Publication Date: 2019
Through a series of recent breakthroughs, deep learning has boosted the entire field of machine learning. Now, even programmers who know close to nothing about this technology can use simple, efficient tools to implement programs capable of learning from data. This practical book shows you how.By using concrete examples, minimal theory, and two production-ready Python frameworksScikit-Learn and TensorFlowauthor Aurlien Gron helps you gain an intuitive understanding of the concepts and tools for building intelligent systems. Youll learn a range of techniques, starting with simple linear regression and progressing to deep neural networks. With exercises in each chapter to help you apply what youve learned, all you need is programming experience to get started.Explore the machine learning landscape, particularly neural netsUse Scikit-Learn to track an example machine-learning project end-to-endExplore several training models, including support vector machines, decision trees, random forests, and ensemble methodsUse the TensorFlow library to build and train neural netsDive into neural net architectures, including convolutional nets, recurrent nets, and deep reinforcement learningLearn techniques for training and scaling deep neural nets
Home Computers by
Publication Date: 2020-05-19
A celebration of the early years of the digital revolution, when computing power was deployed in a beige box on your desk. Today, people carry powerful computers in our pockets and call them "phones." A generation ago, people were amazed that the processing power of a mainframe computer could be contained in a beige box on a desk. This book is a celebration of those early home computers, with specially commissioned new photographs of 100 vintage computers and a generous selection of print advertising, product packaging, and instruction manuals. Readers can recapture the glory days of fondly remembered (or happily forgotten) machines including the Commodore 64, TRS-80, Apple Lisa, and Mattel Aquarius--traces of the techno-utopianism of the not-so-distant past. Home Computers showcases mass-market success stories, rarities, prototypes, one-offs, and never-before-seen specimens. The heart of the book is a series of artful photographs that capture idiosyncratic details of switches and plugs, early user-interface designs, logos, and labels. After a general scene-setting retrospective, the book proceeds computer by computer, with images of each device accompanied by a short history of the machine, its inventors, its innovations, and its influence. Readers who inhabit today's always-on, networked, inescapably connected world will be charmed by this visit to an era when the digital revolution could be powered down every evening.
How to Grow a Robot by
Publication Date: 2020-04-03
How to develop robots that will be more like humans and less like computers, more social than machine-like, and more playful and less programmed. Most robots are not very friendly. They vacuum the rug, mow the lawn, dispose of bombs, even perform surgery--but they aren't good conversationalists. It's difficult to make eye contact. If the future promises more human-robot collaboration in both work and play, wouldn't it be better if the robots were less mechanical and more social? In How to Grow a Robot, Mark Lee explores how robots can be more human-like, friendly, and engaging. Developments in artificial intelligence--notably Deep Learning--are widely seen as the foundation on which our robot future will be built. These advances have already brought us self-driving cars and chess match-winning algorithms. But, Lee writes, we need robots that are perceptive, animated, and responsive--more like humans and less like computers, more social than machine-like, and more playful and less programmed. The way to achieve this, he argues, is to "grow" a robot so that it learns from experience--just as infants do. After describing "what's wrong with artificial intelligence" (one key shortcoming: it's not embodied), Lee presents a different approach to building human-like robots: developmental robotics, inspired by developmental psychology and its accounts of early infant behavior. He describes his own experiments with the iCub humanoid robot and its development from newborn helplessness to ability levels equal to a nine-month-old, explaining how the iCub learns from its own experiences. AI robots are designed to know humans as objects; developmental robots will learn empathy. Developmental robots, with an internal model of "self," will be better interactive partners with humans. That is the kind of future technology we should work toward.
Human-Robot Interaction by
Publication Date: 2020-05-07
The role of robots in society keeps expanding and diversifying, bringing with it a host of issues surrounding the relationship between robots and humans. This introduction to human-robot interaction (HRI), written by leading researchers in this developing field, is the first to provide a broad overview of the multidisciplinary topics central to modern HRI research. Students and researchers from robotics, artificial intelligence, psychology, sociology, and design will find it a concise and accessible guide to the current state of the field. Written for students from diverse backgrounds, it presents relevant background concepts, describing how robots work, how to design them, and how to evaluate their performance. Self-contained chapters discuss a wide range of topics, including the different communication modalities such as speech and language, non-verbal communication and the processing of emotions, as well as ethical issues around the application of robots today and in the context of our future society.
Interactive Web-Based Data Visualizations with R and Plotly by
Publication Date: 2020-01-21
The richly illustrated Interactive Web-Based Data Visualization with R, plotly, and shiny focuses on the process of programming interactive web graphics for multidimensional data analysis. It is written for the data analyst who wants to leverage the capabilities of interactive web graphics without having to learn web programming. Through many R code examples, you will learn how to tap the extensive functionality of these tools to enhance the presentation and exploration of data. By mastering these concepts and tools, you will impress your colleagues with your ability to quickly generate more informative, engaging, and reproducible interactive graphics using free and open source software that you can share over email, export to pdf, and more. Key Features: Convert static ggplot2 graphics to an interactive web-based form Link, animate, and arrange multiple plots in standalone HTML from R Embed, modify, and respond to plotly graphics in a shiny app Learn best practices for visualizing continuous, discrete, and multivariate data Learn numerous ways to visualize geo-spatial data This book makes heavy use of plotly for graphical rendering, but you will also learn about other R packages that support different phases of a data science workflow, such as tidyr, dplyr, and tidyverse. Along the way, you will gain insight into best practices for visualization of high-dimensional data, statistical graphics, and graphical perception. The printed book is complemented by an interactive website where readers can view movies demonstrating the examples and interact with graphics.
The Internet in Everything: Freedom and Security in a World with No Off Switch by
Publication Date: 2020
A compelling argument that the Internet of things threatens human rights and security and that suggests policy prescriptions to protect our future The Internet has leapt from human-facing display screens into the material objects all around us. In this so-called Internet of Things-connecting everything from cars to cardiac monitors to home appliances-there is no longer a meaningful distinction between physical and virtual worlds. Everything is connected. The social and economic benefits are tremendous, but there is a downside: an outage in cyberspace can result not only in a loss of communication but also potentially a loss of life. Control of this infrastructure has become a proxy for political power, since countries can easily reach across borders to disrupt real-world systems. Laura DeNardis argues that this diffusion of the Internet into the physical world radically escalates governance concerns around privacy, discrimination, human safety, democracy, and national security, and she offers new cyber-policy solutions. In her discussion, she makes visible the sinews of power already embedded in our technology and explores how hidden technical governance arrangements will become the constitution of our future.
Machine Learning Refined by
Publication Date: 2020-01-09
With its intuitive yet rigorous approach to machine learning, this text provides students with the fundamental knowledge and practical tools needed to conduct research and build data-driven products. The authors prioritize geometric intuition and algorithmic thinking, and include detail on all the essential mathematical prerequisites, to offer a fresh and accessible way to learn. Practical applications are emphasized, with examples from disciplines including computer vision, natural language processing, economics, neuroscience, recommender systems, physics, and biology. Over 300 color illustrations are included and have been meticulously designed to enable an intuitive grasp of technical concepts, and over 100 in-depth coding exercises (in Python) provide a real understanding of crucial machine learning algorithms. A suite of online resources including sample code, data sets, interactive lecture slides, and a solutions manual are provided online, making this an ideal text both for graduate courses on machine learning and for individual reference and self-study.
Natural Language Understanding and Cognitive Robotics by
Publication Date: 2019-12-06
In the not so distant future, we can expect a world where humans and robots coexist and interact with each other. For this to occur, we need to understand human traits, such as seeing, hearing, thinking, speaking, etc., and institute these traits in robots. The most essential feature necessary for robots to achieve is that of integrative multimedia understanding (IMU) which occurs naturally in humans. It allows us to assimilate pieces of information expressed through different modes such as speech, pictures, gestures, etc. The book describes how robots acquire traits like natural language understanding (NLU) as the central part of IMU. Mental image directed semantic theory (MIDST) is its core, and is based on the hypothesis that NLU is essentially the processing of mental image associated with natural language expressions, namely, mental-image based understanding (MBU). MIDST is intended to model omnisensory mental image in human and to afford a knowledge representation system in order for integrative management of knowledge subjective to cognitive mechanisms of intelligent entities such as humans and robots based on a mental image model visualized as 'Loci in Attribute Spaces' and its description language Lmd (mental image description language) to be employed for predicate logic with a systematic scheme for symbol-grounding. This language works as an interlingua among various kinds of information media, and has been applied to several versions of the intelligent system interlingual understanding model aiming at general system (IMAGES). Its latest version, i.e. conversation management system (CMS) simulates MBU and comprehends the user's intention through dialogue to find and solve problems, and finally, provides a response in text or animation. The book is aimed at researchers and students interested in artificial intelligence, robotics, and cognitive science. Based on philosophical considerations, the methodology will also have an appeal in linguistics, psychology, ontology, geography, and cartography. Key Features: Describes the methodology to provide robots with human-like capability of natural language understanding (NLU) as the central part of IMU Uses methodology that also relates to linguistics, psychology, ontology, geography, and cartography Examines current trends in machine translation
On the Path to AI by
Publication Date: 2020-06-03
This open access book explores machine learning and its impact on how we make sense of the world. It does so by bringing together two 'revolutions' in a surprising analogy: the revolution of machine learning, which has placed computing on the path to artificial intelligence, and the revolution in thinking about the law that was spurred by Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr in the last two decades of the 19th century. Holmes reconceived law as prophecy based on experience, prefiguring the buzzwords of the machine learning age--prediction based on datasets. On the path to AI introduces readers to the key concepts of machine learning, discusses the potential applications and limitations of predictions generated by machines using data, and informs current debates amongst scholars, lawyers and policy makers on how it should be used and regulated wisely. Technologists will also find useful lessons learned from the last 120 years of legal grappling with accountability, explainability, and biased data.
Power after Carbon: Building a Clean, Resilient Grid by
Publication Date: 2020
As the electric power industry faces the challenges of climate change, technological disruption, new market imperatives, and changing policies, a renowned energy expert offers a roadmap to the future of this essential sector. As the damaging and costly impacts of climate change increase, the rapid development of sustainable energy has taken on great urgency. The electricity industry has responded with necessary but wrenching shifts toward renewables, even as it faces unprecedented challenges and disruption brought on by new technologies, new competitors, and policy changes. The result is a collision course between a grid that must provide abundant, secure, flexible, and affordable power, and an industry facing enormous demands for power and rapid, systemic change. The fashionable solution is to think small: smart buildings, small-scale renewables, and locally distributed green energy. But Peter Fox-Penner makes clear that these will not be enough to meet our increasing needs for electricity. He points instead to the indispensability of large power systems, battery storage, and scalable carbon-free power technologies, along with the grids and markets that will integrate them. The electric power industry and its regulators will have to provide all of these, even as they grapple with changing business models for local electric utilities, political instability, and technological change. Power after Carbon makes sense of all the moving parts, providing actionable recommendations for anyone involved with or relying on the electric power system.
Publication Date: 2020-01-07
A true story of innovation, centered on a scrappy team of engineers--far from the Silicon Valley limelight--and their quest to achieve a surprisingly difficult technological feat: building a robot that can lay bricks. Humans have landed men on the moon, programmed cars to drive themselves, and put the knowledge of our entire civilization in your back pocket. But no one--from MIT nerds to Army Corps engineers--has ever built a robot that can lay bricks as well as a mason. Unlike the controlled conditions of a factory line, where robots are now ubiquitous, no two construction sites are alike, and a day's work involves countless variables--bricks that range in size and quality, temperamental mortar mixes, uneven terrain, fickle weather, and moody foremen. Twenty-five years ago, on a challenging construction job in Syracuse, architect Nate Podkaminer had a vision of a future full of efficient, automated machines that freed men from the repetitive, toilsome burden of laying bricks. (Bricklayers lift the equivalent of a Ford truck every few days.) Offhandedly, he mentioned the idea to his daughter's boyfriend, and after some inspired scheming, the architect and engineer--soon to be in-laws--cofounded a humble start-up called Construction Robotics. Working out of a small trailer, they recruited a boldly unconventional team of engineers to build the Semi-Automated Mason: SAM. In classic American tradition, a small, unlikely, and eccentric family-run start-up sought to reimagine the behemoth $1 trillion construction industry--the second biggest industry in America--in bootstrap fashion. In the tradition of Tracy Kidder's The Soul of a New Machine, SAM unfolds as an engineering drama, full of trials and setbacks, heated showdowns between meticulous scientists and brash bricklayers (and their even more opinionated union), and hard-earned milestone achievements. Jonathan Waldman, acclaimed author of Rust, brings readers inside the world of the renegade company revolutionizing the most traditional trade.
Women of Color in Tech by
Publication Date: 2020-03-18
Break through barriers to achieve a rewarding future in tech Nonfiction Book Awards Silver Winner from the Nonfiction Authors Association Winner of CompTIA's 2020 Diversity Technology Leader Spotlight Award Winner of a Technology Rising Star Award from the 2020 Women of Color in STEM Conference Women of Color in Tech: A Blueprint for Inspiring and Mentoring the Next Generation of Technology Innovators will help you overcome the obstacles that often prevent women of color from pursuing and staying in tech careers. Contrary to popular belief, tech careers are diverse and fun--and they go far beyond just coding. This book will show you that today's tech careers are incredibly dynamic, and you'll learn how your soft skills--communication, public speaking, networking--can help you succeed in tech. This book will guide you through the process of cultivating strong relationships and building a network that will get you were you want to be. You'll learn to identify a strong, knowledgeable support network that you can rely on for guidance or mentorship. This step is crucial in getting young women of color into tech careers and keeping them there. Build your professional network to get the guidance you need Find a mentor who understands your goals and your struggles Overcome negativity and stay motivated through difficult times Identify and develop the soft skills that you need to get ahead in tech Read this book to help bring to life your vision of a future in tech. With practical advice and inspiring stories, you'll develop the right tools and the right mindset. Whether you're just considering going into tech or you want to take your current career to the next level, Women of Color in Tech will show you how to uncover the resources you need to succeed.