This is the "Basics" page of the "Scholarly Metrics " guide.
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This page describes the various means of searching for cited and citing references, measures of influence and impact, altmetrics and bibliometrics.
Last Updated: Sep 8, 2014 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

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Tracking Cited References

Cited references are the articles, books, and other resources listed in a bibliography, a "Works Cited" list, or in a "References" list. Cited references are useful for finding additional articles and books on a topic, for identifying the top researchers in a field, and for tenure decisions.

 Databases tracking cited references make it possible to follow the instances where a reference or author has been cited. This technique may be useful to:

  • Track the research of an individual
  • Track the history of a research idea
  • Locate current research based on earlier research
  • Find out how many times and where a publication is being cited
  • Find out who is referencing a particular source
  • Find out how a particular research topic is being used to support other research and to analyze its impact

Overview of Citation Metrics


Essential Concepts of Scholarly Metrics

Altmetrics: a new form of measuring scholarly impact based on web-based and social media sources which can show influence and impact.

Bibliometrics: The variety of metrics available based on cited reference data to measure scholarly output, impact, relevance and ranking. Analytics include citation count, impact factor, SNIP, h-index, e-index, and a wide variety of related measurements. 

Citation Analysis: the process of tracing various patterns of scholarly behavior through analyzing the cited and/or citing references of a body of work. This could be done on an individual article, author, journal, institution, or other group.

Citation Count: The number of times an article, author, journal, institution, etc. has been cited. It is very difficult to locate every single time something or someone has been cited. Commonly accepted citation counts come from Web of Science. Each source which provides citation counts draws from a different base of resources and therefore the results may differ between Web of Science or Google Scholar.

Citation Evaluation: Simply identifying the number of times someone or something has been cited does not account for certain citation patterns. For example, an author may have one or two articles early in his or her career that have very high citation counts, but later articles substantially less. Another author may have a relatively steady number of citations for each article throughout his or her career. The Citation Count Evaluation tab provides some examples of tools for evaluating citation patterns beyond a simple count.

Journal Ranking: There are a number of metrics that seek to measure the influence of a journal based on how it is being cited in other works A common resource is the Journal Impact Factor.  It should be emphasized that the ranking of a journal is not necessarily a reflection of a single specific article within the journal.




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